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PLoS One. 2015 Sep 14;10(9):e0137183. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0137183. eCollection 2015.

Prolonged Adaptation to a Low or High Protein Diet Does Not Modulate Basal Muscle Protein Synthesis Rates - A Substudy.

Author information

1
Department of Human Biology, School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
2
Department of Human Movement Sciences, School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Based on controlled 36 h experiments a higher dietary protein intake causes a positive protein balance and a negative fat balance. A positive net protein balance may support fat free mass accrual. However, few data are available on the impact of more prolonged changes in habitual protein intake on whole-body protein metabolism and basal muscle protein synthesis rates.

OBJECTIVE:

To assess changes in whole-body protein turnover and basal muscle protein synthesis rates following 12 weeks of adaptation to a low versus high dietary protein intake.

METHODS:

A randomized parallel study was performed in 40 subjects who followed either a high protein (2.4 g protein/kg/d) or low protein (0.4 g protein/kg/d) energy-balanced diet (30/35/35% or 5/60/35% energy from protein/carbohydrate/fat) for a period of 12 weeks. A subgroup of 7 men and 8 women (body mass index: 22.8±2.3 kg/m2, age: 24.3±4.9 y) were selected to evaluate the impact of prolonged adaptation to either a high or low protein intake on whole body protein metabolism and basal muscle protein synthesis rates. After the diet, subjects received continuous infusions with L-[ring-2H5]phenylalanine and L-[ring-2H2]tyrosine in an overnight fasted state, with blood samples and muscle biopsies being collected to assess post-absorptive whole-body protein turnover and muscle protein synthesis rates in vivo in humans.

RESULTS:

After 12 weeks of intervention, whole-body protein balance in the fasted state was more negative in the high protein treatment when compared with the low protein treatment (-4.1±0.5 vs -2.7±0.6 μmol phenylalanine/kg/h;P<0.001). Whole-body protein breakdown (43.0±4.4 vs 37.8±3.8 μmol phenylalanine/kg/h;P<0.03), synthesis (38.9±4.2 vs 35.1±3.6 μmol phenylalanine/kg/h;P<0.01) and phenylalanine hydroxylation rates (4.1±0.6 vs 2.7±0.6 μmol phenylalanine/kg/h;P<0.001) were significantly higher in the high vs low protein group. Basal muscle protein synthesis rates were maintained on a low vs high protein diet (0.042±0.01 vs 0.045±0.01%/h;P = 0.620).

CONCLUSIONS:

In the overnight fasted state, adaptation to a low-protein intake (0.4 g/kg/d) does not result in a more negative whole-body protein balance and does not lower basal muscle protein synthesis rates when compared to a high-protein intake.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01551238.

PMID:
26367529
PMCID:
PMC4569069
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0137183
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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