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Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016 May;51(5):541-8. doi: 10.1002/ppul.23312. Epub 2015 Sep 14.

Beta-lactam versus beta- lactam/macrolide therapy in pediatric outpatient pneumonia.

Author information

1
Division of Hospital Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio.
2
Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio.
3
Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio.
4
Division of General Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.
5
Population Health, Geisinger Health System, Danville, Pennsylvania.
6
Center for Health Research, Geisinger Health System, Danville, Pennsylvania.
7
Division of Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The objective was to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of beta-lactam monotherapy and beta- lactam/macrolide combination therapy in the outpatient management of children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).

METHODS:

This retrospective cohort study included children, ages 1-18 years, with CAP diagnosed between January 1, 2008 and January 31, 2010 during outpatient management in the Geisinger Health System. The primary exposure was receipt of beta-lactam monotherapy or beta-lactam/macrolide combination therapy. The primary outcome was treatment failure, defined as a follow-up visit within 14 days of diagnosis resulting in a change in antibiotic therapy. Logistic regression within a propensity score- restricted cohort was used to estimate the likelihood of treatment failure.

RESULTS:

Of 717 children in the analytical cohort, 570 (79.4%) received beta-lactam monotherapy and 147 (20.1%) received combination therapy. Of those who received combination therapy 58.2% of children were under 6 years of age. Treatment failure occurred in 55 (7.7%) children, including in 8.1% of monotherapy recipients, and 6.1% of combination therapy recipients. Treatment failure rates were highest in children 6-18 years receiving monotherapy (12.9%) and lowest in children 6-18 years receiving combination therapy (4.0%). Children 6-18 years of age who received combination therapy were less likely to fail treatment than those who received beta-lactam monotherapy (propensity-adjusted odds ratio, 0.51; 95% confidence interval, 0.28, 0.95).

CONCLUSION:

Children 6-18 years of age who received beta- lactam/macrolide combination therapy for CAP in the outpatient setting had lower odds of treatment failure compared with those who received beta-lactam monotherapy.

KEYWORDS:

amoxicillin; child; comparative effectiveness research; pediatric; pneumonia; pneumonia bacterial

PMID:
26367389
PMCID:
PMC6309318
DOI:
10.1002/ppul.23312
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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