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J Dairy Sci. 2015 Nov;98(11):7595-601. doi: 10.3168/jds.2015-9801. Epub 2015 Sep 9.

Release of angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitor peptides during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of Parmigiano Reggiano PDO cheese and their absorption through an in vitro model of intestinal epithelium.

Author information

1
Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie per l'Agricoltura, le Foreste, la Natura e l'Energia (DAFNE), Università della Tuscia-Viterbo, via S. C. De Lellis, s.n.c., 01100, Viterbo, Italy.
2
Dipartimento di Scienze per gli Alimenti, la Nutrizione e l'Ambiente (DeFENS), Università degli Studi di Milano, via G. Celoria 2, 20133 Milano, Italy.
3
Dipartimento di Scienze per gli Alimenti, la Nutrizione e l'Ambiente (DeFENS), Università degli Studi di Milano, via G. Celoria 2, 20133 Milano, Italy. Electronic address: ivano.denoni@unimi.it.

Abstract

The occurrence of 8 bovine casein-derived peptides (VPP, IPP, RYLGY, RYLG, AYFYPEL, AYFYPE, LHLPLP, and HLPLP) reported as angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitors (ACE-I) was investigated in the 3-kDa ultrafiltered water-soluble extract (WSE) of Parmigiano Reggiano (PR) cheese samples by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry via an electrospray ionization source. Only VPP, IPP, LHLPLP, and HLPLP were revealed in the WSE, and their total amount was in the range of 8.46 to 21.55 mg/kg of cheese. Following in vitro static gastrointestinal digestion, the same ACE-I peptides along with the newly formed AYFYPEL and AYFYPE were found in the 3 kDa WSE of PR digestates. Digestates presented high amounts (1,880-3,053 mg/kg) of LHLPLP, whereas the remaining peptides accounted for 69.24 to 82.82 mg/kg. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values decreased from 7.92 ± 2.08 in undigested cheese to 3.20 ± 1.69 after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. The 3-kDa WSE of digested cheeses were used to study the transport of the 8 ACE-I peptides across the monolayers of the Caco-2 cell culture grown on a semipermeable membrane of the transwells. After 1h of incubation, 649.20 ± 148.85 mg/kg of LHLPLP remained in the apical compartment, whereas VPP, IPP, AYFYPEL, AYFYPE, and HLPLP accounted in total for less than 36.78 mg/kg. On average, 0.6% of LHLPLP initially present in the digestates added to the apical compartment were transported intact to the basolateral chamber after the same incubation time. Higher transport rate (2.9%) was ascertained for the peptide HLPLP. No other intact ACE-I peptides were revealed in the basolateral compartment. For the first time, these results demonstrated that the ACE-I peptides HLPLP and LHLPLP present in the in vitro digestates of PR cheese are partially absorbed through an in vitro model of human intestinal epithelium.

KEYWORDS:

Parmigiano Reggiano; angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitor peptides; in vitro gastrointestinal digestion; in vitro intestinal absorption; ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry via an electrospray ionization source

PMID:
26364103
DOI:
10.3168/jds.2015-9801
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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