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J Affect Disord. 2015 Dec 1;188:143-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2015.08.061. Epub 2015 Sep 1.

Circadian preference links to depression in general adult population.

Author information

1
Department of Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland; Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Orton Orthopaedics Hospital, Helsinki, Finland. Electronic address: ilona.merikanto@helsinki.fi.
2
Department of Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Turku, Finland.
3
Department of Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland.
4
Department of Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland; Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland; Hospital District of North Karelia, Joensuu, Finland.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Preference to time the daily activities towards the evening hours has been associated with a greater likelihood for depression in earlier studies consisting of relatively small samples.

METHODS:

In the current study, we analyzed the relationship between chronotype and depression using a combined population-based sample of 10,503 Finnish adults aged 25 to 74 years from the two national FINRISK 2007 and 2012 health examination studies.

RESULTS:

Our results confirmed that eveningness was significantly associated with the increased odds for a diagnosed depressive disorder, antidepressant medication, and depressive symptoms (p<0.0001 for each), after controlling for a range of depression-attributed and potential confounding factors. Regardless of depressive symptoms, Evening-types had lower systolic and diastolic blood pressures, a smaller waist circumference, and a lower body weight than other chronotypes.

LIMITATIONS:

A limitation to our study is that the assessment of chronotype and information about depression was based on the self-report information only. However, the big population-based sample, which is derived from a national health examination survey, is a major strength of our study.

CONCLUSIONS:

In conclusion, our study is in line the results from the previous, smaller sample size studies confirming that Evening-types have higher risk for depression than other chronotypes. This risk is elevated even among those Evening-types with sufficient amount of sleep.

KEYWORDS:

Alcohol; Body-mass index; Chronobiology; Diurnal; Morningness; Sleep

PMID:
26363264
DOI:
10.1016/j.jad.2015.08.061
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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