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Exp Gerontol. 2015 Nov;71:95-102. doi: 10.1016/j.exger.2015.09.005. Epub 2015 Sep 8.

The heuristic value of redundancy models of aging.

Author information

1
Groningen Institute for Evolutionary Life Sciences University of Groningen P.O. Box 11103, 9700CC Groningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: jjboonekamp@gmail.com.
2
Groningen Institute for Evolutionary Life Sciences University of Groningen P.O. Box 11103, 9700CC Groningen, The Netherlands.
3
Groningen Institute for Evolutionary Life Sciences University of Groningen P.O. Box 11103, 9700CC Groningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: s.verhulst@rug.nl.

Abstract

Molecular studies of aging aim to unravel the cause(s) of aging bottom-up, but linking these mechanisms to organismal level processes remains a challenge. We propose that complementary top-down data-directed modelling of organismal level empirical findings may contribute to developing these links. To this end, we explore the heuristic value of redundancy models of aging to develop a deeper insight into the mechanisms causing variation in senescence and lifespan. We start by showing (i) how different redundancy model parameters affect projected aging and mortality, and (ii) how variation in redundancy model parameters relates to variation in parameters of the Gompertz equation. Lifestyle changes or medical interventions during life can modify mortality rate, and we investigate (iii) how interventions that change specific redundancy parameters within the model affect subsequent mortality and actuarial senescence. Lastly, as an example of data-directed modelling and the insights that can be gained from this, (iv) we fit a redundancy model to mortality patterns observed by Mair et al. (2003; Science 301: 1731-1733) in Drosophila that were subjected to dietary restriction and temperature manipulations. Mair et al. found that dietary restriction instantaneously reduced mortality rate without affecting aging, while temperature manipulations had more transient effects on mortality rate and did affect aging. We show that after adjusting model parameters the redundancy model describes both effects well, and a comparison of the parameter values yields a deeper insight in the mechanisms causing these contrasting effects. We see replacement of the redundancy model parameters by more detailed sub-models of these parameters as a next step in linking demographic patterns to underlying molecular mechanisms.

KEYWORDS:

Actuarial senescence; Aging interventions; Demography; Dietary restriction; Disposable soma; Drosophila; Evolution

PMID:
26362219
DOI:
10.1016/j.exger.2015.09.005
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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