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J Korean Neurosurg Soc. 2015 Aug;58(2):93-100. doi: 10.3340/jkns.2015.58.2.93. Epub 2015 Aug 28.

A Role of Serum-Based Neuronal and Glial Markers as Potential Predictors for Distinguishing Severity and Related Outcomes in Traumatic Brain Injury.

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Department of Neurosurgery, Konyang University Hospital, Daejeon, Korea.
Department of Neurosurgery, Konyang University Hospital, Daejeon, Korea. ; Graduate School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea. ; Konyang University Myunggok Medical Research Institute, Daejeon, Korea.



Optimal treatment decision and estimation of the prognosis in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is currently based on demographic and clinical predictors. But sometimes, there are limitations in these factors. In this study, we analyzed three central nervous system biomarkers in TBI patients, will discuss the roles and clinical applications of biomarkers in TBI.


From July on 2013 to August on 2014, a total of 45 patients were included. The serum was obtained at the time of hospital admission, and biomarkers were extracted with centrifugal process. It was analyzed for the level of S-100 beta (S100B), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1).


This study included 33 males and 12 females with a mean age of 58.5 (19-84) years. TBI patients were classified into two groups. Group A was severe TBI with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score 3-5 and Group B was mild TBI with GCS score 13-15. The median serum concentration of S100B, GFAP, and UCH-L1 in severe TBI were raised 5.1 fold, 5.5 fold, and 439.1 fold compared to mild injury, respectively. The serum levels of these markers correlated significantly with the injury severity and clinical outcome (p<0.001). Increased level of markers was strongly predicted poor outcomes.


S100B, GFAP, and UCH-L1 serum level of were significantly increased in TBI according to severity and associated clinical outcomes. Biomarkers have potential utility as diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic adjuncts in the setting of TBI.


Biological markers; Brain injuries; Glial fibrillary acidic protein; S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit; Ubiquitin thiolesterase

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