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Environ Sci Technol. 2015 Oct 6;49(19):11834-9. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b02135. Epub 2015 Sep 18.

Urinary Concentrations of Bisphenol A and Three Other Bisphenols in Convenience Samples of U.S. Adults during 2000-2014.

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Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , Atlanta, Georgia 30341, United States.


Because of regulatory actions and public concerns, the use of bisphenol A (BPA) may decrease, while the use of BPA alternatives may increase. Although BPA alternatives are considered safer than BPA, their effects on health are still largely unknown. For risk assessment, understanding exposure to these chemicals is necessary. We measured the urinary concentrations of BPA and three bisphenol analogs, bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F (BPF), and bisphenol AF (BPAF), in 616 archived samples collected from convenience samplings of U.S. adults at eight time points between 2000 and 2014. We detected BPA at the highest frequency and geometric mean (GM) concentrations (74-99%, 0.36-2.07 μg/L), followed by BPF (42-88%, 0.15-0.54 μg/L) and BPS (19-74%, < 0.1-0.25 μg/L); BPAF was rarely detected (<3% of all samples). Although concentrations of BPF were generally lower than for other bisphenols, the 95th percentile concentration of BPF was often comparable or higher than that of BPA. We did not observe obvious exposure trends for BPF. However, the significant changes in GM concentrations of BPA and BPS suggest that exposures may be declining (BPA) or on the rise (BPS). Nationally representative data will be useful to confirm these findings and to allow monitoring future exposure trends to BPA and some of its bisphenol alternatives.

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