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Resuscitation. 2015 Nov;96:252-9. doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2015.08.012. Epub 2015 Sep 7.

Outcomes of preterm infants following the introduction of room air resuscitation.

Author information

  • 1Department of Paediatrics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Electronic address: jack.rabi@albertahealthservices.ca.
  • 2Department of Paediatrics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Electronic address: abhay.lodha@albertahealthservices.ca.
  • 3Department of Paediatrics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Electronic address: amuchou.soraisham@albertahealthservices.ca.
  • 4Department of Paediatrics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Electronic address: nalini.singhal@albertahealthservices.ca.
  • 5Sainte Justine University Health Centre, Montréal, Quebec, Canada. Electronic address: keith.barrington@mcgill.ca.
  • 6Department of Paediatrics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Maternal-Infant Care Research Centre, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address: PShah@mtsinai.on.ca.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

After 2006 most neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in Canada stopped initiating newborn resuscitation with 100% oxygen.

METHODS:

In this retrospective cohort study, we compared neonatal outcomes in infants born at ≤ 27 weeks gestation that received <100% oxygen (OXtitrate group, typically 21-40% oxygen) during delivery room resuscitation to infants that received 100% oxygen (OX100 group).

RESULTS:

Data from 17 NICUs included 2326 infants, 1244 in the OXtitrate group and 1082 in the OX100 group. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for the primary outcome of severe neurologic injury or death was higher in the OXtitrate group compared with the OX100 group (AOR 1.36; 95% CI 1.11, 1.66). A similar increase was also noted when comparing infants initially resuscitated with room air to the OX100 group (AOR 1.33; 95% CI 1.04, 1.69). Infants in the OXtitrate group were less likely to have received either medical or surgical treatment for a patent ductus arteriosus (AOR 0.53; 95% CI 0.37, 0.74).

CONCLUSIONS:

In Canadian NICUs, we observed a higher risk of severe neurologic injury or death among preterm infants of ≤ 27 weeks gestation following a change in practice to initiating resuscitation with either room air or an intermediate oxygen concentration.

KEYWORDS:

Infant; Neonatal intensive care; Oxygen; Premature; Resuscitation

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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