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Circulation. 2015 Oct 27;132(17):1630-8. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.014443. Epub 2015 Sep 10.

Depression and human immunodeficiency virus infection are risk factors for incident heart failure among veterans: Veterans Aging Cohort Study.

Author information

1
From Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, PA (J.R.W.); Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (C.-C.H.C.); Department of Medicine, Boston University, MA (K.A.S.-A.); Department of Psychology, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (J.C.S., T.K.); Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis (S.K.G.); Hamad Healthcare Quality Institute, Doha, Qatar (A.A.B.); Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar (A.A.B.); VA Medical Center, Washington, DC (C.L.G.); Division of Infectious Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (D.R.); Atlanta VA Medical Center, Decatur, GA (D.R.); Infectious Diseases Section, Michael E. DeBakey VAMC and Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (M.C.R.-B.); UCLA School of Medicine and Division of General Medicine, Greater Los Angeles VA Healthcare System, CA (D.A.L.); Department of Medicine, VA North Texas Health Care System, Dallas (R.J.B.); Division of Cardiology, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore (J.S.G.); Department of Medical and Clinical Psychology, Tilburg University, The Netherlands (W.J.K.); Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (S.S.G.); Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, Torrance, CA (M.J.B.); Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (H.T.); Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (A.C.J.); Veterans Affairs Connecticut Health Care System, West Haven Veterans Administration Medical Center, CT (A.C.J.); and Cardiovascular Medicine Division, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine and Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Nashville, TN (M.S.F.).
2
From Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, PA (J.R.W.); Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (C.-C.H.C.); Department of Medicine, Boston University, MA (K.A.S.-A.); Department of Psychology, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (J.C.S., T.K.); Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis (S.K.G.); Hamad Healthcare Quality Institute, Doha, Qatar (A.A.B.); Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar (A.A.B.); VA Medical Center, Washington, DC (C.L.G.); Division of Infectious Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (D.R.); Atlanta VA Medical Center, Decatur, GA (D.R.); Infectious Diseases Section, Michael E. DeBakey VAMC and Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (M.C.R.-B.); UCLA School of Medicine and Division of General Medicine, Greater Los Angeles VA Healthcare System, CA (D.A.L.); Department of Medicine, VA North Texas Health Care System, Dallas (R.J.B.); Division of Cardiology, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore (J.S.G.); Department of Medical and Clinical Psychology, Tilburg University, The Netherlands (W.J.K.); Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (S.S.G.); Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, Torrance, CA (M.J.B.); Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (H.T.); Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (A.C.J.); Veterans Affairs Connecticut Health Care System, West Haven Veterans Administration Medical Center, CT (A.C.J.); and Cardiovascular Medicine Division, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine and Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Nashville, TN (M.S.F.). matthew.s.freiberg@vanderbilt.edu.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Both HIV and depression are associated with increased heart failure (HF) risk. Depression, a common comorbidity, may further increase the risk of HF among adults with HIV infection (HIV+). We assessed the association between HIV, depression, and incident HF.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) participants free from cardiovascular disease at baseline (n=81 427: 26 908 HIV+, 54 519 without HIV [HIV-]) were categorized into 4 groups: HIV- without major depressive disorder (MDD) [reference], HIV- with MDD, HIV+ without MDD, and HIV+ with MDD. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes from medical records were used to determine MDD and the primary outcome, HF. After 5.8 years of follow-up, HF rates per 1000 person-years were highest among HIV+ participants with MDD (9.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.20-10.6). In Cox proportional hazards models, HIV+ participants with MDD had a significantly higher risk of HF (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.45-1.95) compared with HIV- participants without MDD. MDD was associated with HF in separate fully adjusted models for HIV- and HIV+ participants (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.06-1.37; and adjusted hazard ratio, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.11-1.51, respectively). Among those with MDD, baseline antidepressant use was associated with lower risk of incident HF events (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.58-0.99).

CONCLUSIONS:

Our study is the first to suggest that MDD is an independent risk factor for HF in HIV+ adults. These results reinforce the importance of identifying and managing MDD among HIV+ patients. Future studies must clarify mechanisms linking HIV, MDD, antidepressants, and HF and identify interventions to reduce HF morbidity and mortality in those with both HIV and MDD.

KEYWORDS:

HIV; depression; epidemiology; heart failure

PMID:
26358261
PMCID:
PMC4624488
DOI:
10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.014443
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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