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Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2015 Dec 1;57:67-76. doi: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.07.043. Epub 2015 Jul 23.

Bone regeneration strategy inspired by the study of calcification behavior in deer antler.

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National Engineering Center for Tissue Reconstruction and Restoration, School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510641, PR China.
College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou, PR China. Electronic address:
Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, China.
Interdisciplinary Division of Biomedical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China. Electronic address:


Bone regeneration has attracted much attention from various researchers and inspired numerous strategies for bone formation. In this study, rapid calcification of deer antlers was studied to unravel bone biology by investigating mineral composition, morphology and microstructure. Calcification model was hypothesized and preliminarily established by in vitro experiments. In our model, mineral deposition and phase conversions in the gel matrix were mimicked. Results revealed that mineral metabolism including deposition and phase conversion plays key roles in calcification in vivo, which inspired the bone regeneration strategy with three main components, i.e. enhanced mineral nucleation, mineral ions sources and crystals habits. Rapid mineral metabolism of implant apatite biomaterials was supposed as the critical aspect of bone regeneration. This study will provide a relatively ideal model for peer bone regeneration studies.


Antler; Biomineralization; Bone regeneration; Calcification

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