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Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2015 Dec;232(23):4317-23. doi: 10.1007/s00213-015-4059-y. Epub 2015 Sep 9.

Methylphenidate alters selective attention by amplifying salience.

Author information

1
Karakter Child and Adolescent Psychiatry University Centre, Reinier Postlaan 12, 6526 GC, Nijmegen, Netherlands. nielsterhuurne@gmail.com.
2
Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, Kapittelweg 29, 6525 EN, Nijmegen, Netherlands. nielsterhuurne@gmail.com.
3
Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Radboudumc, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, P.O. Box 9101 (204), 6500 HB, Nijmegen, Netherlands. s.fallon@psy.ox.ac.uk.
4
Department of Experimental Psychology, Oxford, OX13UD, UK. s.fallon@psy.ox.ac.uk.
5
Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA. martine.vanschouwenburg@ucsf.edu.
6
Department of Physiology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA. martine.vanschouwenburg@ucsf.edu.
7
Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA. martine.vanschouwenburg@ucsf.edu.
8
Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, Kapittelweg 29, 6525 EN, Nijmegen, Netherlands. m.vanderschaaf@donders.ru.nl.
9
Karakter Child and Adolescent Psychiatry University Centre, Reinier Postlaan 12, 6526 GC, Nijmegen, Netherlands. Jan.Buitelaar@radboudumc.nl.
10
Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Radboudumc, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, P.O. Box 9101 (204), 6500 HB, Nijmegen, Netherlands. Jan.Buitelaar@radboudumc.nl.
11
Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, Kapittelweg 29, 6525 EN, Nijmegen, Netherlands. o.jensen@donders.ru.nl.
12
Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, Kapittelweg 29, 6525 EN, Nijmegen, Netherlands. roshan.cools@gmail.com.

Abstract

RATIONALE:

Methylphenidate, the most common treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is increasingly used by healthy individuals as a "smart drug" to enhance cognitive abilities like attention. A key feature of (selective) attention is the ability to ignore irrelevant but salient information in the environment (distractors). Although crucial for cognitive performance, until now, it is not known how the use of methylphenidate affects resistance to attentional capture by distractors.

OBJECTIVES:

The present study aims to clarify how methylphenidate affects distractor suppression in healthy individuals.

METHODS:

The effect of methylphenidate (20 mg) on distractor suppression was assessed in healthy subjects (N = 20), in a within-subject double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design. We used a visuospatial attention task with target faces flanked by strong (faces) or weak distractors (scrambled faces).

RESULTS:

Methylphenidate increased accuracy on trials that required gender identification of target face stimuli (methylphenidate 88.9 ± 1.4 [mean ± SEM], placebo 86.0 ± 1.2 %; p = .003), suggesting increased processing of the faces. At the same time, however, methylphenidate increased reaction time when the target face was flanked by a face distractor relative to a scrambled face distractor (methylphenidate 34.9 ± 3.73, placebo 26.7 ± 2.84 ms; p = .027), suggesting enhanced attentional capture by distractors with task-relevant features.

CONCLUSIONS:

We conclude that methylphenidate amplifies salience of task-relevant information at the level of the stimulus category. This leads to enhanced processing of the target (faces) but also increased attentional capture by distractors drawn from the same category as the target.

KEYWORDS:

ADHD; Attention; Cognitive enhancer; Distractor; Dopamine; Methylphenidate; Resistance; Salience; Smart drug; Suppression

PMID:
26349753
DOI:
10.1007/s00213-015-4059-y
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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