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Angle Orthod. 2016 May;86(3):456-61. doi: 10.2319/051315-323.1. Epub 2015 Sep 8.

Are maximum bite forces of subjects 7 to 17 years of age related to malocclusion?

Author information

1
a  Assistant Professor, Department of Orthodontics, CES University, Grupo de Investigación en Bioingeniería GIB, CES-EAFIT, Medellín, Colombia.
2
b  Instructor, Department of Orthodontics, CES University, Grupo de Investigación en Bioingeniería GIB, CES-EAFIT, Medellín, Colombia.
3
c  Assistant Professor, Department of Product Design Engineering, EAFIT University, Grupo de Investigación en Bioingeniería GIB, CES-EAFIT, Medellín, Colombia.
4
d  Private Practice, Medellín, Colombia.
5
e  Regents Professor, Department of Orthodontics, Texas A&M University Baylor College of Dentistry, Dallas, Tex.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To determine the effects of occlusion on maximum bite force of growing subjects.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Incisor and first molar bite force of children and adolescents was evaluated. Four cohorts were measured annually for 3 years, starting at approximately 7, 9, 12, and 15 years of age, respectively. The initial sample included 182 females and 198 males; there were 130 subjects with normal occlusion, 111 with Class I malocclusion, and 139 with Class II malocclusion. Multilevel analyses were performed to model the growth changes and compare groups.

RESULTS:

Maximum bite force increased significantly (P < .05) over time. Incisal forces peaked at 14.3 and 15.3 years of age for females and males, respectively. Maximum molar bite force peaked at 16 years for both males and females. Subjects with normal occlusion had significantly higher bite force than subjects with malocclusion. Maximum molar bite force exhibited a significant testing effect, with forces increasing 2.6 kg each year that the tests were repeated.

CONCLUSIONS:

Malocclusion has a detrimental effect on bite force. Changes in maximum bite force are also due to age, sex, and repeated testing.

KEYWORDS:

Age; Maximum bite force; Occlusion; Sex; Testing effects

PMID:
26347948
DOI:
10.2319/051315-323.1
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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