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Nat Rev Genet. 2015 Oct;16(10):567-82. doi: 10.1038/nrg3937. Epub 2015 Sep 8.

Elucidating the molecular architecture of adaptation via evolve and resequence experiments.

Author information

1
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine, California 92697, USA.
2
Institute for Research on Cancer and Ageing of Nice (IRCAN), Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS) Unité Mixte de Recherche (UMR) 7284 - Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) U1081 - Université de Nice Sophia Antipolis, 06107 Nice, France.
3
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, Irvine, California 92697, USA.
4
Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), Université Denis Diderot Paris 7, Unité Mixte de Recherche (UMR) 1137, Infection, Antimicrobials, Modelling, Evolution (IAME), 75205 Paris, France.

Abstract

Evolve and resequence (E&R) experiments use experimental evolution to adapt populations to a novel environment, then next-generation sequencing to analyse genetic changes. They enable molecular evolution to be monitored in real time on a genome-wide scale. Here, we review the field of E&R experiments across diverse systems, ranging from simple non-living RNA to bacteria, yeast and the complex multicellular organism Drosophila melanogaster. We explore how different evolutionary outcomes in these systems are largely consistent with common population genetics principles. Differences in outcomes across systems are largely explained by different starting population sizes, levels of pre-existing genetic variation, recombination rates and adaptive landscapes. We highlight emerging themes and inconsistencies that future experiments must address.

PMID:
26347030
PMCID:
PMC4733663
DOI:
10.1038/nrg3937
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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