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J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2015 Sep;17(9):657-62. doi: 10.1111/jch.12615. Epub 2015 Jul 17.

Reducing Sodium Intake in Children: A Public Health Investment.

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Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD.
Cardiovascular Nutrition Laboratory, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, MA.
American Heart Association, Washington, DC.
Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN.
Department of Preventive Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL.


The antecedents of elevated blood pressure (BP) and its major consequences (cardiovascular disease and stroke) begin in childhood. Higher levels of BP early in life track into adulthood and are associated with subclinical target organ damage in children and adults. Diet behaviors, including the choice of high sodium containing foods, are established during childhood. On average, children, ages 2-19, consume more than 3,100 mg of sodium per day, with substantially greater sodium intakes in boys than girls. Importantly, studies show that lowering sodium intake in children lowers blood pressure. In view of this evidence, U.S. Dietary Guidelines recommend a reduced sodium intake in children. Current federal nutrition standards include a step-wise reduction in the sodium levels of school meals. The ultimate goal is to help children achieve daily sodium intakes that do not exceed upper levels recommended by the Institute of Medicine and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. In summary, available data are sufficiently strong to recommend a lower sodium intake beginning in early in life as an effective and well-tolerated approach to reducing BP in children. Current efforts to weaken nutrition standards for school meals undermine an effective strategy aimed at improving the health of our children and our nation.

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