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Nutrients. 2015 Aug 26;7(9):7143-62. doi: 10.3390/nu7095329.

The Role of Gluten in Celiac Disease and Type 1 Diabetes.

Author information

1
Center for Celiac Research, Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital and Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Massachusetts General Hospital for Children, Boston, MA 02114, USA. gserena@mgh.harvard.edu.
2
Graduate Program in Life Sciences, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA. gserena@mgh.harvard.edu.
3
Center for Celiac Research, Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital and Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Massachusetts General Hospital for Children, Boston, MA 02114, USA. sscamhi@partners.org.
4
Center for Celiac Research, Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital and Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Massachusetts General Hospital for Children, Boston, MA 02114, USA. csturgeon@mgh.harvard.edu.
5
Graduate Program in Life Sciences, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA. csturgeon@mgh.harvard.edu.
6
Center for Celiac Research, Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital and Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Massachusetts General Hospital for Children, Boston, MA 02114, USA. syan4@mgh.harvard.edu.
7
Center for Celiac Research, Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital and Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Massachusetts General Hospital for Children, Boston, MA 02114, USA. afasano@mgh.harvard.edu.

Abstract

Celiac disease (CD) and type 1 diabetes (T1D) are autoimmune conditions in which dietary gluten has been proven or suggested to play a pathogenic role. In CD; gluten is established as the instigator of autoimmunity; the autoimmune process is halted by removing gluten from the diet; which allows for resolution of celiac autoimmune enteropathy and subsequent normalization of serological markers of the disease. However; an analogous causative agent has not yet been identified for T1D. Nevertheless; the role of dietary gluten in development of T1D and the potentially beneficial effect of removing gluten from the diet of patients with T1D are still debated. In this review; we discuss the comorbid occurrence of CD and T1D and explore current evidences for the specific role of gluten in both conditions; specifically focusing on current evidence on the effect of gluten on the immune system and the gut microbiota.

KEYWORDS:

celiac disease; gluten; type 1 diabetes

PMID:
26343710
PMCID:
PMC4586524
DOI:
10.3390/nu7095329
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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