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Nutr Clin Pract. 2016 Jun;31(3):368-74. doi: 10.1177/0884533615601849. Epub 2015 Sep 4.

Anthropometric Indicators Predict Metabolic Syndrome Diagnosis in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients.

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Department of Internal Medicine, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, UNESP, Univ Estadual Paulista, São Paulo, Brazil.
Department of Internal Medicine, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, UNESP, Univ Estadual Paulista, São Paulo, Brazil



Obesity has been considered the key in metabolic syndrome (MetS) development, and fat accumulation may be responsible for the occurrence of metabolic abnormalities in hemodialysis patients. The use of gold-standard methods to evaluate obesity is limited, and anthropometric measures may be the simplest methods. However, no study has investigated the association between anthropometric indexes and MetS in these patients. Therefore, the aim was to determine which anthropometric indexes had the best association and prediction for MetS in patients undergoing hemodialysis.


Cross-sectional study that included patients older than 18 years, undergoing hemodialysis for at least 3 months. Patients with liver disease and cancer or those receiving corticosteroids or antiretroviral therapy were excluded. Diagnostic criteria from Harmonizing Metabolic Syndrome were used for the diagnosis of MetS. Anthropometric indexes evaluated were body mass index (BMI); percent standard of triceps skinfold thickness and of middle arm muscle circumference; waist circumference (WC); sagittal abdominal diameter; neck circumference; waist-to-hip, waist-to-thigh, and waist-to-height ratios; sagittal index; conicity index; and body fat percentage.


Ninety-eight patients were included, 54.1% male, and mean age was 57.8 ± 12.9 years. The prevalence of MetS was 74.5%. Individuals with MetS had increased accumulation of abdominal fat and general obesity. Waist-to-height ratio was the variable independently associated with MetS diagnosis (odds ratio, 1.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.34; P < .01) and that better predicts MetS, followed by WC and BMI (area under the curve of 0.840, 0.836, and 0.798, respectively, P < .01).


Waist-to-height ratio was the best anthropometric predictor of MetS in maintenance hemodialysis patients.


anthropometry; dialysis; metabolic syndrome X; waist circumference; waist-to-height ratio

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