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Clin J Pain. 2016 Jun;32(6):541-54. doi: 10.1097/AJP.0000000000000296.

Psychological Factors and Conditioned Pain Modulation: A Meta-Analysis.

Author information

1
*Laboratory of Clinical Neurophysiology, the Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology †Department of Neurology, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, Israel.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) responses may be affected by psychological factors such as anxiety, depression, and pain catastrophizing; however, most studies on CPM do not address these relations as their primary outcome. The aim of this meta-analysis was to analyze the findings regarding the associations between CPM responses and psychological factors in both pain-free individuals and pain patients.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

After a comprehensive PubMed search, 37 articles were found to be suitable for inclusion. Analyses used DerSimonian and Laird's random-effects model on Fisher's z-transforms of correlations; potential publication bias was tested using funnel plots and Egger's regression test for funnel plot asymmetry. Six meta-analyses were performed examining the correlations between anxiety, depression, and pain catastrophizing, and CPM responses in healthy individuals and pain patients.

RESULTS:

No significant correlations between CPM responses and any of the examined psychological factors were found. However, a secondary analysis, comparing modality-specific CPM responses and psychological factors in healthy individuals, revealed the following: (1) pressure-based CPM responses were correlated with anxiety (grand mean correlation in original units r=-0.1087; 95% confidence limits, -0.1752 to -0.0411); (2) heat-based CPM was correlated with depression (r=0.2443; 95% confidence limits, 0.0150 to 0.4492); and (3) electrical-based CPM was correlated with pain catastrophizing levels (r=-0.1501; 95% confidence limits, -0.2403 to -0.0574).

DISCUSSION:

Certain psychological factors seem to be associated with modality-specific CPM responses in healthy individuals. This potentially supports the notion that CPM paradigms evoked by different stimulation modalities represent different underlying mechanisms.

PMID:
26340657
DOI:
10.1097/AJP.0000000000000296
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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