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Mol Biol Evol. 2015 Dec;32(12):3132-42. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msv181. Epub 2015 Sep 2.

A Common Genetic Origin for Early Farmers from Mediterranean Cardial and Central European LBK Cultures.

Author information

1
Institute of Evolutionary Biology (CSIC-Universitat Pompeu Fabra), Barcelona, Spain.
2
Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Faculty of Archaeology, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands.
3
Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
4
Department of Statistics, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
5
Departament de Prehistòria i Arqueologia, Universitat de València, València, Spain.
6
Departament de Prehistòria i Arqueologia, Universitat de València, València, Spain Department of Archaeology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa LAMPEA UMR 7269, Maison Méditerranéenne des Sciences de l'Homme (MMSH), Aix-en-Provence, France Department of Human Evolution, Max-Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany.
7
Department of Human Evolution, Max-Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany.
8
Seminari Estudis i Recerques Prehistòriques (SERP; SGR2014-00108), Departament de Prehistòria, H. Antiga i Arqueologia, Facultat de Geografia i Història, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
9
Seminari Estudis i Recerques Prehistòriques (SERP; SGR2014-00108), Departament de Prehistòria, H. Antiga i Arqueologia, Facultat de Geografia i Història, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain Col·Lectiu per a la Investigació de la Prehistòria i l'Arqueologia del Garraf-Ordal, CIPAG, Begues, Spain.
10
Centro de Arqueologia, Faculdade de Letras, Universidade de Lisboa (UNIARQ), Alameda da Universidade, Lisboa, Portugal.
11
Centro de Arqueologia, Faculdade de Letras, Universidade de Lisboa (UNIARQ), Alameda da Universidade, Lisboa, Portugal GRQ, Grup de Recerca del Quaternari, Seminari Estudis i Recerques Prehistòriques (SERP; SGR2014-00108), Departament de Prehistòria, H. Antiga i Arqueologia, Facultat de Geografia i Història, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
12
Seminari Estudis i Recerques Prehistòriques (SERP; SGR2014-00108), Departament de Prehistòria, H. Antiga i Arqueologia, Facultat de Geografia i Història, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain Centro de Arqueologia, Faculdade de Letras, Universidade de Lisboa (UNIARQ), Alameda da Universidade, Lisboa, Portugal Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Barcelona, Spain.
13
Institute of Evolutionary Biology (CSIC-Universitat Pompeu Fabra), Barcelona, Spain Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Barcelona, Spain.
14
Institute of Evolutionary Biology (CSIC-Universitat Pompeu Fabra), Barcelona, Spain carles.lalueza@upf.edu.

Abstract

The spread of farming out of the Balkans and into the rest of Europe followed two distinct routes: An initial expansion represented by the Impressa and Cardial traditions, which followed the Northern Mediterranean coastline; and another expansion represented by the LBK (Linearbandkeramik) tradition, which followed the Danube River into Central Europe. Although genomic data now exist from samples representing the second migration, such data have yet to be successfully generated from the initial Mediterranean migration. To address this, we generated the complete genome of a 7,400-year-old Cardial individual (CB13) from Cova Bonica in Vallirana (Barcelona), as well as partial nuclear data from five others excavated from different sites in Spain and Portugal. CB13 clusters with all previously sequenced early European farmers and modern-day Sardinians. Furthermore, our analyses suggest that both Cardial and LBK peoples derived from a common ancient population located in or around the Balkan Peninsula. The Iberian Cardial genome also carries a discernible hunter-gatherer genetic signature that likely was not acquired by admixture with local Iberian foragers. Our results indicate that retrieving ancient genomes from similarly warm Mediterranean environments such as the Near East is technically feasible.

KEYWORDS:

Cardial ware; Neolithic; migration; paleogenomics

PMID:
26337550
PMCID:
PMC4652622
DOI:
10.1093/molbev/msv181
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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