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Twin Res Hum Genet. 2015 Oct;18(5):557-70. doi: 10.1017/thg.2015.57. Epub 2015 Sep 4.

Zygosity Differences in Height and Body Mass Index of Twins From Infancy to Old Age: A Study of the CODATwins Project.

Jelenkovic A1, Yokoyama Y2, Sund R1, Honda C3, Bogl LH4, Aaltonen S1, Ji F5, Ning F5, Pang Z5, Ordoñana JR6, Sánchez-Romera JF7, Colodro-Conde L6, Burt SA8, Klump KL8, Medland SE9, Montgomery GW9, Kandler C10, McAdams TA11, Eley TC11, Gregory AM12, Saudino KJ13, Dubois L14, Boivin M15, Tarnoki AD16, Tarnoki DL16, Haworth CM17, Plomin R11, Öncel SY18, Aliev F19, Stazi MA20, Fagnani C20, D'Ippolito C20, Craig JM21, Saffery R21, Siribaddana SH22, Hotopf M23, Sumathipala A22, Rijsdijk F11, Spector T24, Mangino M24, Lachance G24, Gatz M25, Butler DA26, Bayasgalan G27, Narandalai D28, Freitas DL29, Maia JA30, Harden KP31, Tucker-Drob EM31, Kim B32, Chong Y32, Hong C32, Shin HJ32, Christensen K33, Skytthe A33, Kyvik KO34, Derom CA35, Vlietinck RF35, Loos RJ36, Cozen W37, Hwang AE37, Mack TM37, He M38, Ding X38, Chang B38, Silberg JL39, Eaves LJ39, Maes HH40, Cutler TL41, Hopper JL41, Aujard K42, Magnusson PK43, Pedersen NL43, Aslan AK43, Song YM44, Yang S45, Lee K46, Baker LA25, Tuvblad C25, Bjerregaard-Andersen M47, Beck-Nielsen H48, Sodemann M49, Heikkilä K4, Tan Q50, Zhang D51, Swan GE52, Krasnow R53, Jang KL54, Knafo-Noam A55, Mankuta D56, Abramson L55, Lichtenstein P43, Krueger RF57, McGue M57, Pahlen S57, Tynelius P58, Duncan GE59, Buchwald D59, Corley RP60, Huibregtse BM60, Nelson TL61, Whitfield KE62, Franz CE63, Kremen WS63, Lyons MJ64, Ooki S65, Brandt I66, Nilsen TS66, Inui F67, Watanabe M3, Bartels M68, van Beijsterveldt TC68, Wardle J69, Llewellyn CH69, Fisher A69, Rebato E70, Martin NG9, Iwatani Y3, Hayakawa K3, Sung J45, Harris JR66, Willemsen G68, Busjahn A71, Goldberg JH72, Rasmussen F58, Hur YM73, Boomsma DI68, Sørensen TI74, Kaprio J4, Silventoinen K1.

Author information

1
Department of Social Research,University of Helsinki,Helsinki,Finland.
2
Department of Public Health Nursing,Osaka City University,Osaka,Japan.
3
Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine,Osaka University,Osaka,Japan.
4
Department of Public Health,University of Helsinki,Helsinki,Finland.
5
Department of Noncommunicable Diseases Prevention,Qingdao Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,Qingdao,China.
6
Department of Human Anatomy and Psychobiology,University of Murcia,Murcia,Spain.
7
Department of Developmental and Educational Psychology,University of Murcia,Murcia,Spain.
8
Michigan State University,East Lansing,MI,USA.
9
QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute,Brisbane,Queensland,Australia.
10
Department of Psychology,Bielefeld University,Bielefeld,Germany.
11
MRC Social,Genetic & Developmental Psychiatry Centre,Institute of Psychiatry,Psychology & Neuroscience,King's College London,London,UK.
12
Department of Psychology,Goldsmiths,University of London,New Cross,London,UK.
13
Department of Psychological and Brain Sciencies,Boston University,Boston,MA,USA.
14
School of Epidemiology,Public Health and Preventive Medicine,University of Ottawa,Ottawa,Ontario,Canada.
15
École de psychologie,Université Laval,Québec,Canada.
16
Department of Radiology and Oncotherapy,Semmelweis University,Budapest,Hungary.
17
MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit,University of Bristol,Bristol,UK.
18
Department of Statistics,Faculty of Arts and Sciences,Kırıkkale University,Kırıkkale,Turkey.
19
Departments of Psychiatry,Psychology,and Human and Molecular Genetics,Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics,Virginia Commonwealth University,Richmond,VA,USA.
20
Istituto Superiore di Sanità - National Center for Epidemiology,Surveillance and Health Promotion,Rome,Italy.
21
Murdoch Childrens Research Institute,Royal Children's Hospital,Melbourne,Victoria,Australia.
22
Institute of Research & Development,Battaramulla,Sri Lanka.
23
NIHR Mental Health Biomedical Research Centre,South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, andInstitute of Psychiatry Psychology and Neuroscience,King's College London,London,UK.
24
Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology,King's College London,London,UK.
25
Department of Psychology,University of Southern California,Los Angeles,CA,USA.
26
Institute of Medicine,National Academy of Sciences Washington,DC,WA,USA.
27
Healthy Twin Association of Mongolia,Ulaanbaatar,Mongolia.
28
Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences,Hiroshima University,Hiroshima,Japan.
29
Department of Physical Education and Sport,University of Madeira,Funchal,Portugal.
30
CIFI2D,Faculty of Sport,University of Porto,Porto,Portugal.
31
Department of Psychology,University of Texas at Austin,Austin,TX,USA.
32
Department of Psychology,Pusan National University,Busan,SouthKorea.
33
The Danish Twin Registry,Institute of Public Health,Epidemiology,Biostatistics & Biodemography,University of Southern Denmark,Odense,Denmark.
34
Department of Clinical Research,University of Southern Denmark,Odense,Denmark.
35
Centre of Human Genetics,University Hospitals Leuven,Leuven,Belgium.
36
The Charles Bronfman Institute for Personalized Medicine,The Mindich Child Health and Development Institute,Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai,New York,NY,USA.
37
Department of Preventive Medicine,Keck School of Medicine of USC,University of Southern California,Los Angeles,CA,USA.
38
State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology,Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center,Sun Yat-Sen University,Guangzhou,China.
39
Department of Human and Molecular Genetics,Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics,Virginia Commonwealth University,Richmond,VA,USA.
40
Department of Human and Molecular Genetics,Psychiatry & Massey Cancer Center,Virginia Commonwealth University,Richmond,VA,USA.
41
The Australian Twin Registry,Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics,The University of Melbourne,Melbourne,Victoria,Australia.
42
Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics,The University of Melbourne,Melbourne,Victoria,Australia.
43
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics,Karolinska Institutet,Stockholm,Sweden.
44
Department of Family Medicine,Samsung Medical Center,School of Medicine,Sungkyunkwan University,Seoul,South Korea.
45
Department of Epidemiology,School of Public Health,Seoul National University,Seoul,SouthKorea.
46
Department of Family Medicine,Busan Paik Hospital,Inje University College of Medicine,Busan,South Korea.
47
Bandim Health Project,INDEPTH Network,Bissau,Guinea-Bissau.
48
Department of Endocrinology,Odense University Hospital,Odense,Denmark.
49
Department of Infectious Diseases,Odense University Hospital,Odense,Denmark.
50
Epidemiology,Biostatistics and Biodemography,Institute of Public Health,University of Southern Denmark,Odense,Denmark.
51
Department of Public Health,Qingdao University Medical College,Qingdao,China.
52
Department of Medicine,Stanford Prevention Research Center,Stanford University School of Medicine,Stanford,CA,USA.
53
Center for Health Sciences,SRI International,Menlo Park,CA,USA.
54
Department of Psychiatry,University of British Columbia,Vancouver,British Columbia,Canada.
55
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem,Jerusalem,Israel.
56
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology,Hadassah Hospital,Hebrew University Medical School,Jerusalem,Israel.
57
Department of Psychology,University of Minnesota,Minneapolis,MN,USA.
58
Department of Public Health Sciences,Karolinska Institutet,Stockholm,Sweden.
59
Center for Clinical and Epidemiological Research,University of Washington,Seattle,WA,USA.
60
Institute for Behavioral Genetics,Boulder,CO,USA.
61
Department of Health and Exercise Sciences and Colorado School of Public Health,Colorado State University,CO,USA.
62
Psychology and Neuroscience,Duke University,Durham,NC,USA.
63
Department of Psychiatry,University of California,San Diego,CA,USA.
64
Department of Psychology,Boston University,Boston,MA,USA.
65
Department of Health Science,Ishikawa Prefectural Nursing University,Kahoku,Ishikawa,Japan.
66
Department of Genes and Environment,Division of Epidemiology,Norwegian Institute of Public Health,Oslo,Norway.
67
Faculty of Health Science,Kio University,Nara,Japan.
68
Department of Biological Psychology,VU University Amsterdam,Amsterdam,The Netherlands.
69
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health,Health Behaviour Research Centre,Institute of Epidemiology and Health Care,University College London,London,UK.
70
Department of Genetics,Physical Anthropology and Animal Physiology,University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU,Leioa,Spain.
71
HealthTwiSt GmbH,Berlin,Germany.
72
Department of Epidemiology,School of Public Health,University of Washington,Seattle,WA,USA.
73
Department of Education,Mokpo National University,Jeonnam,South Korea.
74
Section on Metabolic Genetics,Novo Nordisk Foundation Centre for Basic Metabolic Research,Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences,University of Copenhagen,Copenhagen,Denmark.

Abstract

A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.

KEYWORDS:

BMI; height; twins; zygosity differences

PMID:
26337138
PMCID:
PMC4605819
DOI:
10.1017/thg.2015.57
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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