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Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2016 Jan;23(1):744-55. doi: 10.1007/s11356-015-5257-1. Epub 2015 Sep 4.

First survey of atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Kosovo using moss biomonitoring.

Author information

1
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Prishtina, Prishtina, Kosovo.
2
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Tirana, Tirana, Albania. pranveralazo@gmail.com.
3
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Vlora, Vlora, Albania.
4
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Tirana, Tirana, Albania.
5
Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Environment Centre Wales, Bangor, UK.

Abstract

Bryophytes act as bioindicators and bioaccumulators of metal deposition in the environment. The atmospheric deposition of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Mn, Pb, and Zn in Kosovo was investigated by using carpet-forming moss species (Pseudocleropodium purum and Hypnum cupressiforme) as bioindicators. This research is part of the European moss survey coordinated by the ICP Vegetation, an International Cooperative Programme reporting on the effects of air pollution on vegetation to the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. Sampling was performed during the summer of 2011 at 25 sampling sites homogenously distributed over Kosovo. Unwashed, dried samples were digested by using wet digestion in Teflon tubes. The concentrations of metal elements were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) equipped with flame and/or furnace systems. The heavy metal concentration in mosses reflected local emission sources. The data obtained in this study were compared with those of similar studies in neighboring countries and Europe (2010-2014 survey). The geographical distribution maps of the elements over the sampled territory were constructed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. The concentrations of Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn were higher than the respective median values of Europe, suggesting that the zones with heavy vehicular traffic and industry emission input are important emitters of these elements. Selected zones are highly polluted particularly by Cd, Pb, Hg, and Ni. The statistical analyses revealed that a strong correlation exists between the Pb and Cd content in mosses, and the degree of pollution in the studied sites was assessed.

KEYWORDS:

AAS; Air pollution; Contamination factor; GIS technology; Heavy metal; Kosovo; Moss biomonitoring; Pollution load index

PMID:
26336845
DOI:
10.1007/s11356-015-5257-1
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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