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Environ Int. 2015 Nov;84:174-80. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2015.08.008. Epub 2015 Aug 31.

Environmental phenols and pubertal development in girls.

Author information

1
Department of Preventive Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 1 Gustave L. Levy Place Box 1057, New York, NY 10029, USA. Electronic address: mary.wolff@mssm.edu.
2
Department of Preventive Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 1 Gustave L. Levy Place Box 1057, New York, NY 10029, USA. Electronic address: susan.teitelbaum@mssm.edu.
3
Department of Preventive Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 1 Gustave L. Levy Place Box 1057, New York, NY 10029, USA. Electronic address: kathleen.mcgovern@mssm.edu.
4
Department of Environmental Health, Kettering Building, Room 208, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3223 Eden Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0056, USA. Electronic address: pinneysm@ucmail.uc.edu.
5
Division of Environmental and Occupational Disease Control, California Department of Public Health, 850 Marina Bay Pkwy, Bldg P, Richmond, CA 94804, USA. Electronic address: gayle.windham@cdph.ca.gov.
6
Department of Preventive Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 1 Gustave L. Levy Place Box 1057, New York, NY 10029, USA. Electronic address: maida.galvez@mssm.edu.
7
Department of Preventive Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 1 Gustave L. Levy Place Box 1057, New York, NY 10029, USA. Electronic address: ashley.pajak7@mssm.edu.
8
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Hwy, MS-F17, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA. Electronic address: szr8@cdc.gov.
9
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Hwy, MS-F17, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA. Electronic address: aic7@cdc.gov.
10
Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente, 2000 Broadway, Oakland, CA 94612, USA. Electronic address: larry.kushi@kp.org.
11
Division of Adolescent Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue (ML-4000), Cincinnati, OH 45229-3029, USA. Electronic address: frank.biro@cchmc.org.

Abstract

Environmental exposures to many phenols are documented worldwide and exposures can be quite high (>1 μM of urine metabolites). Phenols have a range of hormonal activity, but knowledge of effects on child reproductive development is limited, coming mostly from cross-sectional studies. We undertook a prospective study of pubertal development among 1239 girls recruited at three U.S. sites when they were 6-8 years old and were followed annually for 7 years to determine age at first breast or pubic hair development. Ten phenols were measured in urine collected at enrollment (benzophenone-3, enterolactone, bisphenol A, three parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-), 2,5-dichlorophenol, triclosan, genistein, daidzein). We used multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards ratios (HR (95% confidence intervals)) and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses to estimate relative risk of earlier or later age at puberty associated with phenol exposures. For enterolactone and benzophenone-3, girls experienced breast development 5-6 months later, adjusted HR 0.79 (0.64-0.98) and HR 0.80 (0.65-0.98) respectively for the 5th vs 1st quintiles of urinary biomarkers (μg/g-creatinine). Earlier breast development was seen for triclosan and 2,5-dichlorophenol: 4-9 months sooner for 5th vs 1st quintiles of urinary concentrations (HR 1.17 (0.96-1.43) and HR 1.37 (1.09-1.72), respectively). Association of breast development with enterolactone, but not the other three phenols, was mediated by body size. These phenols may be antiadipogens (benzophenone-3 and enterolactone) or thyroid agonists (triclosan and 2,5-dichlorophenol), and their ubiquity and relatively high levels in children would benefit from further investigation to confirm these findings and to establish whether there are certain windows of susceptibility during which exposure can affect pubertal development.

KEYWORDS:

Breast development; Environment; Phenols; Puberty

PMID:
26335517
PMCID:
PMC4570862
DOI:
10.1016/j.envint.2015.08.008
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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