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Eur J Oral Sci. 2015 Oct;123(5):356-361. doi: 10.1111/eos.12210. Epub 2015 Sep 1.

Occupation as a potential contributing factor for temporomandibular disorders, bruxism, and cervical muscle pain: a controlled comparative study.

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Department of Oral Rehabilitation, the Maurice and Gabriela Goldschleger School of Dental Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.


The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence of cervical muscle pain (CMP) and myogenic temporomandibular disorders (MFP) among female dentists, high-tech workers, and a group of subjects employed in other occupations; to investigate the associations among CMP, MFP, and bruxism in those groups; and to evaluate the influence of work-related stress on MFP and CMP. Evaluation was based on clinical examinations of MFP and CMP and self-reported questionnaires concerning pain and stress. The diagnosis of sleep bruxism was adapted using the validated diagnostic criteria of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-2), 2005, Westchester, IL), whilst the diagnosis of awake bruxism was made on the basis of a questionnaire. The odds of a subject with MFP experiencing concurrent CMP or bruxism (sleep and/or awake) ranged from 2.603 to 3.077. These results suggest that high-tech workers and dentists are at greater risk for developing temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and CMP when compared with general occupation workers, as defined in this study. Furthermore, the associations shown here between TMDs and CMP highlight the importance of palpating neck musculature as part of any routine examination of TMD.


bruxism; cervical pain; myogenic pain; occupation; stress


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