Send to

Choose Destination
Biomacromolecules. 2015 Oct 12;16(10):3145-53. doi: 10.1021/acs.biomac.5b00777. Epub 2015 Sep 11.

Biodistribution of Fracture-Targeted GSK3β Inhibitor-Loaded Micelles for Improved Fracture Healing.

Author information

Department of Chemistry, Purdue University , West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, United States.


Bone fractures constitute a major cause of morbidity and mortality especially in the elderly. Complications associated with osteoporosis drugs and the age of the patient slow bone turnover and render such fractures difficult to heal. Increasing the speed of fracture repair by administration of a fracture-targeted bone anabolic agent could find considerable application. Aspartic acid oligopeptides are negatively charged molecules at physiological pH that adsorb to hydroxyapatite, the mineral portion of bone. This general adsorption is the strongest where bone turnover is highest or where hydroxyapatite is freshly exposed. Importantly, both of these conditions are prominent at fracture sites. GSK3β inhibitors are potent anabolic agents that can promote tissue repair when concentrated in a damaged tissue. Unfortunately, they can also cause significant toxicity when administered systemically and are furthermore difficult to deliver due to their strong hydrophobicity. In this paper, we solve both problems by conjugating the hydrophobic GSK3β inhibitor to a hydrophilic aspartic acid octapeptide using a hydrolyzable bond, thereby generating a bone fracture-targeted water-soluble form of the drug. The resulting amphiphile is shown to assemble into micelles, extending its circulation time while maintaining its fracture-targeting abilities. For measurement of pharmacokinetics, an 125I was introduced at the location of the bromine in the GSK3β inhibitor to minimize any structural differences. Biodistribution studies demonstrate a greater than 4-fold increase in fracture accumulation over healthy bone.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for American Chemical Society Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center