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Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2016 Jan;23(1):581-8. doi: 10.1007/s11356-015-5291-z. Epub 2015 Sep 2.

Associations between urinary concentrations of 2,5-dichlorophenol and metabolic syndrome among non-diabetic adults.

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Department of Community Medicine, Mercer University School of Medicine, 1550 College St., Macon, GA, 31207, USA.
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Fort Valley State University, 1005 State University Dr., Fort Valley, GA, USA.


We investigated in this study the relationship between exposure to para-dichlorobenzene (p-DCB), measured as urinary concentrations of 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP), and metabolic syndrome in non-diabetic adult participants. A nationally representative subsample of 1706 non-diabetic adult participants aged 20-79 years randomly selected for measurement of urinary concentrations of 2,5-DCP in the 2007-2010 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was analyzed. A dose-dependent increase in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was observed in the study participants across quartiles of urinary 2,5-DCP (p-trend = 0.0025). After adjusting for potential confounders, individuals in the third and fourth quartile of urinary 2,5-DCP had 1.47 (95% CI 1.02, 2.14) and 1.56 (95% CI 1.10, 2.23) increased odds of metabolic syndrome, respectively, compared with individuals with the lowest quartile. Of the five components of metabolic syndrome, waist circumference and HDL-cholesterol showed a significant and monotonic association with urinary 2,5-DCP. Participants with the highest quartile of 2,5-DCP had 3.18 cm (95% CI 1.34, 5.02) higher mean waist circumference and 2.83 mg/dL (95% CI -4.68, -0.98) lower mean HDL-cholesterol than the participants in the lowest quartile. This study suggests a potential relationship between p-DCB exposure and metabolic syndrome in non-diabetic adults. Prospective epidemiological and mechanistic studies are needed to further explore these interactions.


2,5-Dichlorophenol; Metabolic syndrome; NHANES; Pesticide; p-Dichlorobenzene

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