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Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2015 Nov;93(5):1087-91. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.15-0365. Epub 2015 Aug 31.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Bacteremia Among Acutely Febrile Children in Western Kenya.

Author information

1
Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Kenya Medical Research Institute, Centre for Clinical Research, Nairobi, Kenya; Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI)/CGHR Centre for Global Health Research, Kisumu, Kenya; Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine and Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, Georgia ppav@u.washington.edu.
2
Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Kenya Medical Research Institute, Centre for Clinical Research, Nairobi, Kenya; Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI)/CGHR Centre for Global Health Research, Kisumu, Kenya; Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine and Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, Georgia.

Abstract

In children, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) frequently disseminates systemically, presenting with nonspecific signs including fever. We determined prevalence of M. tuberculosis bacteremia among febrile children presenting to hospitals in Nyanza, Kenya (a region with high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and M. tuberculosis prevalence). Between March 2013 and February 2014, we enrolled children aged 6 months to 5 years presenting with fever (axillary temperature ≥ 37.5°C) and no recent antibiotic use. Blood samples were collected for bacterial and mycobacterial culture using standard methods. Among 148 children enrolled, median age was 3.1 years (interquartile range: 1.8-4.1 years); 10.3% of children were living with a household member diagnosed with M. tuberculosis in the last year. Seventeen percent of children were stunted (height-for-age z-score < -2), 18.6% wasted (weight-for-height z-score < -2), 2.7% were HIV-infected, and 14.2% were HIV-exposed uninfected. Seventeen children (11.5%) had one or more signs of tuberculosis (TB). All children had a Bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccination scar. Among 134 viable blood cultures, none (95% confidence interval: 0-2.7%) had Mycobacterium isolated. Despite exposure to household TB contacts, HIV exposure, and malnutrition, M. tuberculosis bacteremia was not detected in this pediatric febrile cohort, a finding consistent with other pediatric studies.

PMID:
26324730
PMCID:
PMC4703271
DOI:
10.4269/ajtmh.15-0365
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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