Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Nat Rev Microbiol. 2015 Oct;13(10):620-30. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro3480. Epub 2015 Sep 1.

Through the wall: extracellular vesicles in Gram-positive bacteria, mycobacteria and fungi.

Author information

1
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA.
2
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.

Abstract

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are produced by all domains of life. In Gram-negative bacteria, EVs are produced by the pinching off of the outer membrane; however, how EVs escape the thick cell walls of Gram-positive bacteria, mycobacteria and fungi is still unknown. Nonetheless, EVs have been described in a variety of cell-walled organisms, including Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Cryptococcus neoformans. These EVs contain varied cargo, including nucleic acids, toxins, lipoproteins and enzymes, and have important roles in microbial physiology and pathogenesis. In this Review, we describe the current status of vesiculogenesis research in thick-walled microorganisms and discuss the cargo and functions associated with EVs in these species.

PMID:
26324094
PMCID:
PMC4860279
DOI:
10.1038/nrmicro3480
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Nature Publishing Group Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center