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Vet Parasitol. 2015 Oct 30;213(3-4):132-48. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2015.07.028. Epub 2015 Aug 8.

Echinococcus granulosus: Epidemiology and state-of-the-art of diagnostics in animals.

Author information

1
Cestode Zoonoses Research Group, School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT, UK. Electronic address: P.S.Craig@salford.ac.uk.
2
Cestode Zoonoses Research Group, School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT, UK.

Abstract

Diagnosis and detection of Echinococcus granulosus (sensu lato) infection in animals is a prerequisite for epidemiological studies and surveillance of echinococcosis in endemic, re-emergent or emergent transmission zones. Advances in diagnostic approaches for definitive hosts and livestock, however, have not progressed equally over the last 20 years. Development of laboratory based diagnostics for canids using coproantigen ELISA and also coproPCR, have had a huge impact on epidemiological studies and more recently on surveillance during hydatid control programmes. In contrast, diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in livestock still relies largely on conventional post-mortem inspection, despite a relatively low diagnostic sensitivity especially in early infections, as current serodiagnostics do not provide a sufficiently specific and sensitive practical pre-mortem alternative. As a result, testing of dog faecal samples by coproantigen ELISA, often combined with mass ultrasound screening programmes for human CE, has been the preferred approach for monitoring and surveillance in resource-poor endemic areas and during control schemes. In this article we review the current options and approaches for diagnosis of E. granulosus infection in definitive and animal intermediate hosts (including applications in non-domesticated species) and make conclusions and recommendations for further improvements in diagnosis for use in epidemiological studies and surveillance schemes.

KEYWORDS:

Control; Coprotests; Diagnosis; Dogs; Echinococcosis; Epidemiology; Livestock; Wildlife

PMID:
26321135
DOI:
10.1016/j.vetpar.2015.07.028
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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