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Nutr Res. 2015 Nov;35(11):965-74. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2015.08.003. Epub 2015 Aug 10.

Red palm oil-supplemented and biofortified cassava gari increase the carotenoid and retinyl palmitate concentrations of triacylglycerol-rich plasma in women.

Author information

1
Western Human Nutrition Research Center, USDA-ARS-PWA, Davis, CA, 95616, USA. Electronic address: chzhu@ucdavis.edu.
2
Western Human Nutrition Research Center, USDA-ARS-PWA, Davis, CA, 95616, USA. Electronic address: ymcai@ucdavis.edu.
3
Western Human Nutrition Research Center, USDA-ARS-PWA, Davis, CA, 95616, USA. Electronic address: erik.gertz@ars.usda.gov.
4
Western Human Nutrition Research Center, USDA-ARS-PWA, Davis, CA, 95616, USA; Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, 95616, USA. Electronic address: mrlafrano@ucdavis.edu.
5
Western Human Nutrition Research Center, USDA-ARS-PWA, Davis, CA, 95616, USA. Electronic address: dustin.burnett@ars.usda.gov.
6
Western Human Nutrition Research Center, USDA-ARS-PWA, Davis, CA, 95616, USA; Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, 95616, USA. Electronic address: bjburri@ucdavis.edu.

Abstract

Boiled biofortified cassava containing β-carotene can increase retinyl palmitate in triacylglycerol-rich plasma. Thus, it might alleviate vitamin A deficiency. Cassava requires extensive preparation to decrease its level of cyanogenic glucosides, which can be fatal. Garification is a popular method of preparing cassava that removes cyanogen glucosides. Our objective was to compare the effectiveness of biofortified gari to gari prepared with red palm oil. The study was a randomized crossover trial in 8 American women. Three gari preparations separated by 2-week washout periods were consumed. Treatments (containing 200-225.9 g gari) were as follows: biofortified gari (containing 1 mg β-carotene), red palm oil-fortified gari (1 mg β-carotene), and unfortified gari with a 0.3-mg retinyl palmitate reference dose. Blood was collected 6 times from -0.5 to 9.5 hours after ingestion. Triacylglycerol-rich plasma was separated by ultracentrifugation and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection. Area under the curve for β-carotene, α-carotene, and retinyl palmitate increased after the fortified meals were fed (P < .05), although the retinyl palmitate increase induced by the red palm oil treatment was greater than that induced by the biofortified treatment (P < .05). Vitamin A conversion was 2.4 ± 0.3 and 4.2 ± 1.5 μg pro-vitamin A carotenoid/1 μg retinol (means ± SEM) for red palm oil and biofortified gari, respectively. These results show that both treatments increased β-carotene, α-carotene, and retinyl palmitate in triacylglycerol-rich plasma concentrations in healthy well-nourished adult women, supporting our hypothesis that both interventions could support efforts to alleviate vitamin A deficiency.

KEYWORDS:

Biofortified cassava; Human; Red palm oil; Vitamin A; β-Carotene

PMID:
26319612
PMCID:
PMC4997810
DOI:
10.1016/j.nutres.2015.08.003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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