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Lancet. 2016 Feb 27;387(10021):894-906. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00046-X. Epub 2015 Aug 25.

Renal cancer.

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Department of Urology, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:
Division of Experimental Oncology, URI, Urological Research Institute, Renal Cancer Unit, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.


The diagnosis and management of renal cell carcinoma have changed remarkably rapidly. Although the incidence of renal cell carcinoma has been increasing, survival has improved substantially. As incidental diagnosis of small indolent cancers has become more frequent, active surveillance, robot-assisted nephron-sparing surgical techniques, and minimally invasive procedures, such as thermal ablation, have gained popularity. Despite progression in cancer control and survival, locally advanced disease and distant metastases are still diagnosed in a notable proportion of patients. An integrated management strategy that includes surgical debulking and systemic treatment with well established targeted biological drugs has improved the care of patients. Nevertheless, uncertainties, controversies, and research questions remain. Further advances are expected from translational and clinical studies.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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