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Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2015 Sep;44(3):517-30. doi: 10.1016/j.ecl.2015.05.002.

Bone Health and Osteoporosis.

Author information

1
Department of Internal Medicine, Yale Bone Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. Electronic address: beatrice.lupsa@yale.edu.
2
Department of Internal Medicine, Yale Bone Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Abstract

Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue leading to decreased bone strength and an increased risk of low-energy fractures. Central dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements are the gold standard for determining bone mineral density. Bone loss is an inevitable consequence of the decrease in estrogen levels during and following menopause, but additional risk factors for bone loss can also contribute to osteoporosis in older women. A well-balanced diet, exercise, and smoking cessation are key to maintaining bone health as women age. Pharmacologic agents should be recommended in patients at high risk for fracture.

KEYWORDS:

Bone loss; Bone mineral density; Calcium; DXA; Fracture; Menopause; Osteoporosis; Vitamin D

PMID:
26316240
DOI:
10.1016/j.ecl.2015.05.002
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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