Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2015 Sep;44(3):497-515. doi: 10.1016/j.ecl.2015.05.001.

Menopausal Symptoms and Their Management.

Author information

1
Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 12631 East 17th Avenue, AO1, Room 4010, Aurora, CO 80045, USA. Electronic address: Nanette.Santoro@ucdenver.edu.
2
Department of Psychiatry Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3535 Market Street, 3rd Floor, Philadelphia, PA 19104-3309, USA.

Abstract

The menopause transition is associated with various symptoms, which can interact to produce morbidity. Vasomotor symptoms are the most commonly reported, but vaginal dryness/dyspareunia, sleep difficulties and adverse mood changes have all been shown to worsen as women approach menopause. For postmenopausal women changes in cognition are more likely to be related to aging and not to hormones. This article reviews the symptoms of hot flashes (vasomotor symptoms), vaginal dryness/dyspareunia, adverse mood, poor sleep/insomnia, and cognitive complaints, describing their epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment. This article thus reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of these common menopausal symptoms.

KEYWORDS:

Cognitive impairment; Depression; Dyspareunia; Insomnia; Menopause; Perimenopause; Vaginal dryness; Vasomotor symptoms

PMID:
26316239
PMCID:
PMC4890704
DOI:
10.1016/j.ecl.2015.05.001
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center