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J Agric Food Chem. 2015 Sep 23;63(37):8156-61. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.5b02945. Epub 2015 Sep 11.

Dose-Response Effect of Sunlight on Vitamin D2 Production in Agaricus bisporus Mushrooms.

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Section of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, University Medical Center , Freiburg, Germany.
National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark , Copenhagen, Denmark.


The dose response effect of UV-B irradiation from sunlight on vitamin D2 content of sliced Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom) during the process of sun-drying was investigated.Real-time UV-B and UV-A data were obtained using a high-performance spectroradiometer. During the first hour of sunlight exposure, the vitamin D2 content of the mushrooms increased in a linear manner, with concentrations increasing from 0.1 μg/g up to 3.9 ± 0.8 μg/g dry weight (DW). At the subsequent two measurements one and 3 h later, respectively, a plateau was reached. Two hours of additional exposure triggered a significant decline in vitamin D2 content. After just 15 min of sun exposure and an UV-B dose of 0.13 J/cm(2), the vitamin D2 content increased significantly to 2.2 ± 0.5 μg/g DW (P < 0.0001), which is equivalent to 17.6 μg (704 IU) vitamin D2 per 100 g of fresh mushrooms and comparable to levels found in fatty fish like the Atlantic salmon.


Agaricus bisporus; UV-B; dose−response; ergocalciferol; mushroom; sunlight; vitamin D

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