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J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2016 Jun;160:148-59. doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2015.08.021. Epub 2015 Aug 22.

Assessment of sex specific endocrine disrupting effects in the prenatal and pre-pubertal rodent brain.

Author information

1
North Carolina State University, Department of Biological Sciences, Raleigh, NC 27695, United States; W.M. Keck Center for Behavioral Biology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, United States.
2
North Carolina State University, Department of Biological Sciences, Raleigh, NC 27695, United States; W.M. Keck Center for Behavioral Biology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, United States. Electronic address: hbpatisa@ncsu.edu.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Brain sex differences are found in nearly every region of the brain and fundamental to sexually dimorphic behaviors as well as disorders of the brain and behavior. These differences are organized during gestation and early adolescence and detectable prior to puberty. Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) interfere with hormone action and are thus prenatal exposure is hypothesized to disrupt the formation of sex differences, and contribute to the increased prevalence of pediatric neuropsychiatric disorders that present with a sex bias.

OBJECTIVE:

Available evidence for the ability of EDCs to impact the emergence of brain sex differences in the rodent brain was reviewed here, with a focus on effects detected at or before puberty.

METHODS:

The peer-reviewed literature was searched using PubMed, and all relevant papers published by January 31, 2015 were incorporated. Endpoints of interest included molecular cellular and neuroanatomical effects. Studies on behavioral endpoints were not included because numerous reviews of that literature are available.

RESULTS:

The hypothalamus was found to be particularly affected by estrogenic EDCs in a sex, time, and exposure dependent manner. The hippocampus also appears vulnerable to endocrine disruption by BPA and PCBs although there is little evidence from the pre-pubertal literature to make any conclusions about sex-specific effects. Gestational EDC exposure can alter fetal neurogenesis and gene expression throughout the brain including the cortex and cerebellum. The available literature primarily focuses on a few, well characterized EDCs, but little data is available for emerging contaminants.

CONCLUSION:

The developmental EDC exposure literature demonstrates evidence of altered neurodevelopment as early as fetal life, with sex specific effects observed throughout the brain even before puberty.

KEYWORDS:

BPA; Bisphenol; Developmental exposure; EDC; Endocrine disrupting compounds; Genistein; Neurodevelopment; Rodent; Sex differences; Xenoestrogen

PMID:
26307491
PMCID:
PMC4762757
DOI:
10.1016/j.jsbmb.2015.08.021
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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