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Plant Cell. 2015 Sep;27(9):2318-34. doi: 10.1105/tpc.15.00203. Epub 2015 Aug 25.

Global Transcriptome Profiling of Developing Leaf and Shoot Apices Reveals Distinct Genetic and Environmental Control of Floral Transition and Inflorescence Development in Barley.

Author information

  • 1Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, D-50829 Cologne, Germany Institute of Plant Genetics, Heinrich-Heine-University, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany Cluster of Excellence on Plant Sciences, "From Complex Traits towards Synthetic Modules," 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany.
  • 2Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, D-50829 Cologne, Germany Institute of Plant Genetics, Heinrich-Heine-University, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany.
  • 3Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, D-50829 Cologne, Germany Institute of Plant Genetics, Heinrich-Heine-University, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany Cluster of Excellence on Plant Sciences, "From Complex Traits towards Synthetic Modules," 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany korff@mpipz.mpg.de.

Abstract

Timing of the floral transition and inflorescence development strongly affect yield in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Therefore, we examined the effects of daylength and the photoperiod response gene PHOTOPERIOD1 (Ppd-H1) on barley development and analyzed gene expression changes in the developing leaves and main shoot apices (MSAs) of barley by RNA sequencing. The daylength sensitivity of MSA development had two phases, floret primordia initiated under long and short days, whereas successful inflorescence development occurred only under long days. The transcripts associated with floral transition were largely regulated independently of photoperiod and allelic variation at Ppd-H1. The photoperiod- and Ppd-H1-dependent differences in inflorescence development and flower fertility were associated with the induction of barley FLOWERING LOCUS T orthologs: FT1 in leaves and FT2 in MSAs. FT1 expression was coregulated with transcripts involved in nutrient transport, carbohydrate metabolism, and cell cycle regulation, suggesting that FT1 might alter source-sink relationships. Successful inflorescence development correlated with upregulation of FT2 and transcripts related to floral organ development, phytohormones, and cell cycle regulation. Identification of photoperiod and stage-specific transcripts gives insights into the regulation of reproductive development in barley and provides a resource for investigation of the complexities of development and yield in temperate grasses.

PMID:
26307377
PMCID:
PMC4815099
DOI:
10.1105/tpc.15.00203
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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