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Cell Mol Life Sci. 2015 Dec;72(23):4445-60. doi: 10.1007/s00018-015-2012-1. Epub 2015 Aug 26.

Pharmacologic overview of Withania somnifera, the Indian Ginseng.

Dar NJ1,2,3, Hamid A2,3, Ahmad M4,5.

Author information

1
Neuropharmacology Laboratory, Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine-CSIR, Sanat Nagar, Srinagar, 190005, India.
2
Cancer Pharmacology Division, Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine-CSIR, Canal Road, Jammu, 180001, India.
3
Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine-CSIR, Canal Road, Jammu, 180001, Jammu and Kashmir, India.
4
Neuropharmacology Laboratory, Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine-CSIR, Sanat Nagar, Srinagar, 190005, India. mahmad@iiim.res.in.
5
Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine-CSIR, Canal Road, Jammu, 180001, Jammu and Kashmir, India. mahmad@iiim.res.in.

Abstract

Withania somnifera, also called 'Indian ginseng', is an important medicinal plant of the Indian subcontinent. It is widely used, singly or in combination, with other herbs against many ailments in Indian Systems of Medicine since time immemorial. Withania somnifera contains a spectrum of diverse phytochemicals enabling it to have a broad range of biological implications. In preclinical studies, it has shown anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-stress, neuroprotective, cardioprotective, and anti-diabetic properties. Additionally, it has demonstrated the ability to reduce reactive oxygen species, modulate mitochondrial function, regulate apoptosis, and reduce inflammation and enhance endothelial function. In view of these pharmacologic properties, W. somnifera is a potential drug candidate to treat various clinical conditions, particularly related to the nervous system. In this review, we summarize the pharmacologic characteristics and discuss the mechanisms of action and potential therapeutic applications of the plant and its active constituents.

KEYWORDS:

Alzheimer’s disease; Anti-arthritic; Anti-bacterial; Anti-cancer; Anti-diabetic; Anti-inflammatory; Anti-stress; Cardio-protective; Parkinson’s disease; Stroke hypoxia; Withania somnifera

PMID:
26306935
DOI:
10.1007/s00018-015-2012-1
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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