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New Phytol. 2016 Apr;210(1):51-7. doi: 10.1111/nph.13605. Epub 2015 Aug 26.

Subversion of plant cellular functions by bacterial type-III effectors: beyond suppression of immunity.

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Shanghai Center for Plant Stress Biology, Shanghai Institutes of Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 201602, China.


Most bacterial plant pathogens employ a type-III secretion system to inject type-III effector (T3E) proteins directly inside plant cells. These T3Es manipulate host cellular processes in order to create a permissive niche for bacterial proliferation, allowing development of the disease. An important role of T3Es in plant pathogenic bacteria is the suppression of plant immune responses. However, in recent years, research has uncovered T3E functions different from direct immune suppression, including the modulation of plant hormone signaling, metabolism or organelle function. This insight article discusses T3E functions other than suppression of immunity, which may contribute to the modulation of plant cells in order to promote bacterial survival, nutrient release, and bacterial replication and dissemination.


bacterial infection; bacterial virulence; plant hormones; plant immunity; plant metabolism; type-III secreted effectors (T3Es)

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