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Endocrine. 2016 Apr;52(1):120-9. doi: 10.1007/s12020-015-0698-3. Epub 2015 Aug 26.

Type of fish consumed and thyroid autoimmunity in pregnancy and postpartum.

Author information

1
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina School of Medicine, Viale Gazzi, 98125, Messina, Italy.
2
Master Program on Childhood, Adolescent and Women's Endocrine Health, University of Messina School of Medicine, Messina, Italy.
3
Interdepartmental Program of Clinical and Molecular Endocrinology & Women's Endocrine Health, University Hospital Policlinico G. Martino, 98125, Messina, Italy.
4
Department of Biomedical & Morphological and Functional Sciences, University of Messina, Viale Gazzi, Padiglione H, 4 piano, 98125, Messina, Italy.
5
Department of Pediatric, Gynecology, Microbiology and Biomedical Sciences, University of Messina School of Medicine, Viale Gazzi, 98125, Messina, Italy.
6
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina School of Medicine, Viale Gazzi, 98125, Messina, Italy. roberto.vita@yahoo.it.

Abstract

Fish consumption or supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids was reported to cure and/or prevent autoimmune and nonautoimmune disorders. Serum positivity for thyroid autoantibodies is a predictive marker of postpartum thyroiditis and postpartum depression. We hypothesized that stable consumption of the omega-3-rich oily fish was associated with a more favorable profile of serum thyroid antibodies throughout pregnancy and early postpartum compared with stable consumption of swordfish, a predator that concentrates pollutants. We prospectively measured serum thyroglobulin antibodies and thyroperoxidase antibodies in pregnancy (first, second trimesters) and postpartum (day 4), in 236 thyroid disease-free, nonsmoker Caucasian women with stable dietary habits. We did not measure thyroid autoantibodies prior to pregnancy. Women were divided into groups A (n = 48; swordfish), B (n = 52; oily fish), C (n = 68; swordfish + other fish, not necessarily oily fish), and D (n = 68; fish other than swordfish and oily fish). Major endpoints were positivity rates and serum concentrations of the two autoantibodies. We resorted to previous studies for the estimated content of fatty acids and microelements in the consumed fish. Positivity rates and serum concentrations of both antibodies were the greatest in group A and the lowest in group B (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05 to < 0.001, respectively). Relationship between monthly fish consumption and serum concentrations of either antibody was direct in group A but inverse in group B. The estimated content of omega-3 fatty acids in fish consumed by group B was the greatest (P < 0.001 vs. any other group). These data reinforce recommendations that pregnant women should avoid consuming swordfish and indicate consumption of oily fish as a favorable alternative. Because thyroid autoantibodies are markers of autoimmune-related postpartum problems, our data suggest a dietary prophylaxis of such problems.

KEYWORDS:

Fish; Omega-3 fatty acids; Postpartum; Pregnancy; Thyroid autoimmunity

PMID:
26306774
DOI:
10.1007/s12020-015-0698-3
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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