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Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:143109. doi: 10.1155/2015/143109. Epub 2015 Aug 2.

Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: The Way Forward in Times of Mixed Evidence.

Author information

1
Division of Medicine, Department of Hepatology, Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Rudolf-Virchow-Hospital, Charité University Medicine, 13353 Berlin, Germany ; Lipid Clinic, Experimental and Clinical Research Center (ECRC), Max-Delbrück-Center for Molecular Medicine and Charité University Medicine, 13353 Berlin, Germany.
2
Institute of General Pathology, Catholic University School of Medicine, 00168 Rome, Italy.
3
The Synergistic Innovation Center for Food Safety and Nutrition, State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, and School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, China ; Department of Cancer Biology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA.
4
Department of Physiology, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei 100, Taiwan.
5
Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Cancer Research Institute, Infection Signaling Network Research Center, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 301-747, Republic of Korea.
6
Institute of General Pathology, Catholic University School of Medicine, 00168 Rome, Italy ; Research Center for Biotechnology Applied to Cosmetology, Catholic University School of Medicine, 00168 Rome, Italy.

Abstract

Almost forty years ago, it was first hypothesized that an increased dietary intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from fish fat could exert protective effects against several pathologies. Decades of intense preclinical investigation have supported this hypothesis in a variety of model systems. Several clinical cardiovascular studies demonstrated the beneficial health effects of omega-3 PUFA, leading medical institutions worldwide to publish recommendations for their increased intake. However, particularly in recent years, contradictory results have been obtained in human studies focusing on cardiovascular disease and the clinical evidence in other diseases, particularly chronic inflammatory and neoplastic diseases, was never established to a degree that led to clear approval of treatment with omega-3 PUFA. Recent data not in line with the previous findings have sparked a debate on the health efficacy of omega-3 PUFA and the usefulness of increasing their intake for the prevention of a number of pathologies. In this review, we aim to examine the controversies on the possible use of these fatty acids as preventive/curative tools against the development of cardiovascular, metabolic, and inflammatory diseases, as well as several kinds of cancer.

PMID:
26301240
PMCID:
PMC4537707
DOI:
10.1155/2015/143109
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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