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Front Physiol. 2015 Aug 7;6:216. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2015.00216. eCollection 2015.

Xylooligosaccharide supplementation alters gut bacteria in both healthy and prediabetic adults: a pilot study.

Author information

1
Center for Human Nutrition, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles Los Angeles, CA, USA.
2
Infectious Diseases Section, VA West Los Angeles Medical Center Los Angeles, CA, USA.
3
Department of Statistics Core, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles Los Angeles, CA, USA.
4
MR DNA Molecular Research LP Shallowwater, TX, USA.
5
Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, University of California Los Angeles Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

It has been suggested that gut microbiota is altered in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients.

OBJECTIVE:

This study was to evaluate the effect of the prebiotic xylooligosaccharide (XOS) on the gut microbiota in both healthy and prediabetic (Pre-DM) subjects, as well as impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in Pre-DM.

SUBJECTS/METHODS:

Pre-DM (n = 13) or healthy (n = 16) subjects were randomized to receive 2 g/day XOS or placebo for 8-weeks. In Pre-DM subjects, body composition and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was done at baseline and week 8. Stool from Pre-DM and healthy subjects at baseline and week 8 was analyzed for gut microbiota characterization using Illumina MiSeq sequencing.

RESULTS:

We identified 40 Pre-DM associated bacterial taxa. Among them, the abundance of the genera Enterorhabdus, Howardella, and Slackia was higher in Pre-DM. XOS significantly decreased or reversed the increase in abundance of Howardella, Enterorhabdus, and Slackia observed in healthy or Pre-DM subjects. Abundance of the species Blautia hydrogenotrophica was lower in pre-DM subjects, while XOS increased its abundance. In Pre-DM, XOS showed a tendency to reduce OGTT 2-h insulin levels (P = 0.13), but had no effect on body composition, HOMA-IR, serum glucose, triglyceride, satiety hormones, and TNFα.

CONCLUSION:

This is the first clinical observation of modifications of the gut microbiota by XOS in both healthy and Pre-DM subjects in a pilot study. Prebiotic XOS may be beneficial in reversing changes in the gut microbiota during the development of diabetes.

CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:

NCT01944904 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01944904).

KEYWORDS:

diabetes; gut; microbiota; prediabetic; xylooligosaccharide

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