Send to

Choose Destination
Oncotarget. 2015 Oct 6;6(30):28774-89. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.4342.

New therapeutic strategies in neuroblastoma: combined targeting of a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor and liposomal siRNAs against ALK.

Author information

Laboratorio di Oncologia, Istituto G. Gaslini, Genoa, Italy.
Sundia MediTech Company, Ltd., Shangai, China.
Animal Facility, IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria San Martino-IST Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, Genoa, Italy.
Laboratorio Trasferimento Genico, IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria San Martino-IST Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, Genoa, Italy.
Present address: Centre for Inherited Cardiovascular, IRCCS Politecnico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy.
Xcovery LLC, West Palm Beach, FL, USA.


Many different aberrations in the Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) were found to be oncogenic drivers in several cancers including neuroblastoma (NB), therefore ALK is now considered a critical player in NB oncogenesis and a promising therapeutic target. The ALK-inhibitor crizotinib has a limited activity against the various ALK mutations identified in NB patients. We tested: the activity of the novel ALK-inhibitor X-396 administered alone or in combination with Targeted Liposomes carrying ALK-siRNAs (TL[ALK-siRNA]) that are active irrespective of ALK gene mutational status; the pharmacokinetic profiles and the biodistribution of X-396; the efficacy of X-396 versus crizotinib treatment in NB xenografts; whether the combination of X-396 with the TL[ALK-siRNA] could promote long-term survival in NB mouse models. X-396 revealed good bioavailability, moderate half-life, high mean plasma and tumor concentrations. X-396 was more effective than crizotinib in inhibiting in vitro cell proliferation of NB cells and in reducing tumor volume in subcutaneous NB models in a dose-dependent manner. In orthotopic NB xenografts, X-396 significantly increased life span independently of the ALK mutation status. In combination studies, all effects were significantly improved in the mice treated with TL[ALK-siRNA] and X-396 compared to mice receiving the single agents. Our findings provide a rational basis to design innovative molecular-based treatment combinations for clinical application in ALK-driven NB tumors.


ALK-inhibitor; RNA-interference; X-396; neuroblastoma; targeted nanoliposomes

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Impact Journals, LLC Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center