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Auris Nasus Larynx. 2016 Apr;43(2):171-5. doi: 10.1016/j.anl.2015.08.002. Epub 2015 Aug 20.

Health-related quality of life and its contributory factors in allergic rhinitis patients in Nigeria.

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Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH) Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. Electronic address:
Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa (CEEPA), Department of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital & College of Health Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.
Department of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria.
Department of Statistics, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.



To determine the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in allergic rhinitis patients as well as identify contributory factors to patient's well-being.


Cross-sectional study by multistage sampling. Four-month study duration (October 2013 to January 2014). The setting of the study was Kwara State, Nigeria, which has 16 local government areas with 3 senatorial districts, total land mass of 36,825km(2) with a population of 2,591,555. 132 consenting adults; 66 of them have allergic rhinitis (AR) using Score for Allergic Rhinitis (SFAR) instrument and 66 were age- and gender-matched controls (χ(2)=0, d.f.=1, P=1 and χ(2)=1.24, d.f.=2, P=0.54, respectively). Information on HRQoL was obtained using the 14-parameter mini-rhinoconjunctivitis quality of life questionnaire (mini-RQLQ). Socio-demographic variables possibly contributory to patient's well-being were obtained. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare means.


The overall Total Symptom Score (TSS) was 3.37±0.9, while male and female allergic patients and control TSS were 3.61±1.0; 3.16±0.8, and 0.98±0.2; 0.95±0.2, respectively. Effects of gender, marital status, senatorial districts, residential area and duration of symptoms had significant impact on the quality of life. The highest correlation with TSS and components of mini-RQOL questionnaire existed between nasal problems and other symptoms (r=0.866; 0.868).


AR had appreciable impact on HRQoL of the participants. Gender, number of dependents, marital status, senatorial districts, residential area and duration of symptoms were major identifiable contributory factors to the patient's well-being.


Allergic rhinitis; Health-related quality of life (HRQoL); Nigeria

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