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Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2015 Oct;34:46-53. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2015.07.004. Epub 2015 Aug 24.

Reawakening the sleeping beauty in the adult brain: neurogenesis from parenchymal glia.

Author information

1
Laboratory "Adult Neurogenesis and Cellular Reprogramming", Institute of Physiological Chemistry, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Hanns-Dieter-Hüsch Weg 19, D-55128 Mainz, Germany; Focus Program Translational Neuroscience, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Langenbeckstrasse 1, D-55131 Mainz, Germany.
2
Laboratory "Adult Neurogenesis and Cellular Reprogramming", Institute of Physiological Chemistry, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Hanns-Dieter-Hüsch Weg 19, D-55128 Mainz, Germany; Focus Program Translational Neuroscience, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Langenbeckstrasse 1, D-55131 Mainz, Germany. Electronic address: berningb@uni-mainz.de.

Abstract

Life-long neurogenesis is highly restricted to specialized niches in the adult mammalian brain and therefore the brain's capacity for spontaneous regeneration is extremely limited. However, recent work has demonstrated that under certain circumstances parenchymal astrocytes and NG2 glia can generate neuronal progeny. In the striatum, stroke or excitotoxic lesions can reawaken in astrocytes a latent neurogenic program resulting in the genesis of new neurons. By contrast, in brain areas that fail to mount a neurogenic response following injury, such as the cerebral cortex, forced expression of neurogenic reprogramming factors can lineage convert local glia into induced neurons. Yet, injury-induced and reprogramming-induced neurogenesis exhibit intriguing commonalities, suggesting that they may converge on similar mechanisms.

PMID:
26296150
DOI:
10.1016/j.gde.2015.07.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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