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PLoS Pathog. 2015 Aug 21;11(8):e1005072. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005072. eCollection 2015 Aug.

Arming of MAIT Cell Cytolytic Antimicrobial Activity Is Induced by IL-7 and Defective in HIV-1 Infection.

Author information

1
Center for Infectious Medicine, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.
2
Unit of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.
3
Division of Clinical Microbiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.
4
Unit of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden; Division of Clinical Microbiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.

Abstract

Mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells represent a large innate-like evolutionarily conserved antimicrobial T-cell subset in humans. MAIT cells recognize microbial riboflavin metabolites from a range of microbes presented by MR1 molecules. MAIT cells are impaired in several chronic diseases including HIV-1 infection, where they show signs of exhaustion and decline numerically. Here, we examined the broader effector functions of MAIT cells in this context and strategies to rescue their functions. Residual MAIT cells from HIV-infected patients displayed aberrant baseline levels of cytolytic proteins, and failed to mobilize cytolytic molecules in response to bacterial antigen. In particular, the induction of granzyme B (GrzB) expression was profoundly defective. The functionally impaired MAIT cell population exhibited abnormal T-bet and Eomes expression patterns that correlated with the deficiency in cytotoxic capacity and cytokine production. Effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) did not fully restore these aberrations. Interestingly, IL-7 was capable of arming resting MAIT cells from healthy donors into cytotoxic GrzB+ effector T cells capable of killing bacteria-infected cells and producing high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in an MR1-dependent fashion. Furthermore, IL-7 treatment enhanced the sensitivity of MAIT cells to detect low levels of bacteria. In HIV-infected patients, plasma IL-7 levels were positively correlated with MAIT cell numbers and function, and IL-7 treatment in vitro significantly restored MAIT cell effector functions even in the absence of ART. These results indicate that the cytolytic capacity in MAIT cells is severely defective in HIV-1 infected patients, and that the broad-based functional defect in these cells is associated with deficiency in critical transcription factors. Furthermore, IL-7 induces the arming of effector functions and enhances the sensitivity of MAIT cells, and may be considered in immunotherapeutic approaches to restore MAIT cells.

PMID:
26295709
PMCID:
PMC4546682
DOI:
10.1371/journal.ppat.1005072
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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