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Ann Neurol. 2015 Nov;78(5):742-50. doi: 10.1002/ana.24507. Epub 2015 Sep 2.

Elevated synchrony in Parkinson disease detected with electroencephalography.

Author information

1
Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco.
2
Department of Psychology and Neuroscience Graduate Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla.
3
Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco.
4
Department of Psychology and Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Parkinson disease (PD) can be difficult to diagnose and treat. Development of a biomarker for PD would reduce these challenges by providing an objective measure of disease. Emerging theories suggest PD is characterized by excessive synchronization in the beta frequency band (∼20Hz) throughout basal ganglia-thalamocortical loops. Recently we showed with invasive electrocorticography that one robust measure of this synchronization is the coupling of beta phase to broadband gamma amplitude (ie, phase-amplitude coupling [PAC]). Other recent work suggests that high-frequency activity is detectable at the scalp using electroencephalography (EEG). Motivated by these findings, we tested whether beta-gamma PAC over sensorimotor cortex, recorded noninvasively with EEG, differs between PD patients off and on medications, and healthy control subjects.

METHODS:

Resting EEG was compared from 15 PD patients and 16 healthy control subjects. PD patients were tested on and off medications on different days, in a counterbalanced order. For each data set we calculated PAC and compared results across groups.

RESULTS:

PAC was elevated in the patients off medications compared to on medications (p = 0.008) and for patients off medications compared to controls (p = 0.009).

INTERPRETATION:

Elevated PAC is detectable using scalp EEG in PD patients off medications compared to on medications, and compared to healthy controls. This suggests that EEG PAC may provide a noninvasive biomarker of the parkinsonian state. This biomarker could be used as a control signal for closed-loop control of deep brain stimulation devices, for adjustment of dopaminergic treatment, and also has the potential to aid in diagnosis.

PMID:
26290353
PMCID:
PMC4623949
DOI:
10.1002/ana.24507
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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