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J Am Geriatr Soc. 2015 Aug;63(8):1534-9. doi: 10.1111/jgs.13558.

Effect of Active Music Therapy and Individualized Listening to Music on Dementia: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial.

Author information

1
Department of Public Health and Experimental and Forensic Medicine, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.
2
Neurology Clinic, Department of Biomedical and Surgical Sciences, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.
3
Sospiro Foundation, Cremona, Italy.
4
Scientific Direction, Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Pavia, Italy.
5
Department of Occupational Medicine, Ergonomics and Disability, Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Pavia, Italy.
6
Department of Geriatrics and Cardiovascular Medicine, Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Milan, Italy.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To assess the effects of active music therapy (MT) and individualized listening to music (LtM) on behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSDs) in persons with dementia (PWDs).

DESIGN:

Randomized controlled trial.

SETTING:

Nine Italian institutions.

PARTICIPANTS:

Persons with moderate to severe dementia and BPSDs (N = 120) were randomized to one of three treatments.

INTERVENTIONS:

All groups received standard care (SC), and two groups attended 20 individualized MT or LtM sessions, twice a week, in addition to SC.

MEASUREMENTS:

The Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD), and Cornell-Brown Scale for Quality of Life in Dementia (CBS-QoL) were administered before treatment, after treatment, and at follow-up to evaluate behavioral and psychological outcomes. A specific coding scheme (Music Therapy Check List-Dementia) was used to evaluate the MT process.

RESULTS:

Behavioral assessment did not show significant differences between groups. All groups showed a reduction over time in NPI global score (P ≤ .001), CSDD (P = .001), and CBS-QoL (P = .01). The NPI global score fell 28% in the MT group, 12% in the LtM group, and 21% in the SC group at the end of treatment. An exploratory post hoc analysis showed similar within-group improvements for the NPI Delusion, Anxiety, and Disinhibition subscales. In the MT group, communication and relationships between the music therapists and PWDs showed a positive albeit nonsignificant trend during treatment.

CONCLUSION:

The addition of MT or LtM to standard care did not have a significant effect on BPSDs in PWDs. Further studies on the effects of the integration of standard care with different types of music interventions on BPSD in PWD are warranted.

KEYWORDS:

behavioral disturbances; dementia; listening to music; music therapy

PMID:
26289682
DOI:
10.1111/jgs.13558
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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