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Saudi J Biol Sci. 2015 Sep;22(5):543-50. doi: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2015.01.002. Epub 2015 Jan 19.

Haematological and biochemical parameters and tissue accumulations of cadmium in Oreochromis niloticus exposed to various concentrations of cadmium chloride.

Author information

1
Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
2
Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia ; Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.
3
Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

Abstract

Oreochromis niloticus, weighing 36.45 ± 1.12 g were exposed to 10%, 20% and 30% of the LC50 of CdCl2 which represents treatments (T1)1.68, (T2)3.36 and (T3)5.03 mg/l, respectively, for a period of 10, 20 and 30 days. It was found that, compared to a control group reading of 0.19 ± 0.03 μg/g dry weight, accumulation of Cd in the gills was significantly (p < 0.05) increased in samples ranging between 7.64 ± 0.86 and 61.73 ± 0.82 μg/g dry weight from T1 at 10 days to T3 at 30 days. The accumulation of Cd in the liver, meanwhile, was also observed to significantly increase (p < 0.05) with increasing time and concentrations with results ranging between 3.21 ± 0.12 and 181.61 ± 1.32 compared to the control group results of 0.29 ± 0.04 μg/g dry weight. Although muscles exhibited lower levels of accumulation than the gills and liver they still showed the same pattern of increase compared to the control group, with a significant difference ranging between 0.32 ± 0.02 and 2.16 ± 0.08 compared to the control group results of 0.03 ± 0.001 μg/g dry weight. Also, haematological parameters such as red blood cells (RBCs), haemoglobin (Hb) and haematocrit (Hct) were reduced in fish exposed to Cd at all periods, with significant differences (p < 0.05). Plasma glucose concentration showed a significant increase. Total protein levels of fish showed a significant reduction (p > 0.05) for all exposed treatments. Also, the total lipid level increased significantly as fish were exposed to increasing cadmium concentrations, compared to control fish. Finally, the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST IU/l) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT IU/l) showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) with increasing time and concentrations.

KEYWORDS:

Blood parameters; Heavy metals; Nile tilapia; Physiological; Toxicity

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