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Nat Chem Biol. 2015 Sep;11(9):625-31. doi: 10.1038/nchembio.1890.

Minimum Information about a Biosynthetic Gene cluster.

Medema MH1, Kottmann R1, Yilmaz P1, Cummings M2, Biggins JB3, Blin K4, de Bruijn I5, Chooi YH6, Claesen J7, Coates RC8, Cruz-Morales P9, Duddela S10, Düsterhus S11, Edwards DJ12, Fewer DP13, Garg N14, Geiger C11, Gomez-Escribano JP15, Greule A16, Hadjithomas M8, Haines AS17, Helfrich EJ18, Hillwig ML19, Ishida K20, Jones AC21, Jones CS22, Jungmann K10, Kegler C23, Kim HU24, Kötter P11, Krug D10, Masschelein J25, Melnik AV14, Mantovani SM26, Monroe EA27, Moore M28, Moss N26, Nützmann HW29, Pan G30, Pati A8, Petras D31, Reen FJ32, Rosconi F33, Rui Z34, Tian Z35, Tobias NJ23, Tsunematsu Y36, Wiemann P37, Wyckoff E38, Yan X30, Yim G39, Yu F40, Xie Y41, Aigle B42, Apel AK43, Balibar CJ44, Balskus EP45, Barona-Gómez F9, Bechthold A16, Bode HB46, Borriss R47, Brady SF3, Brakhage AA20, Caffrey P48, Cheng YQ49, Clardy J50, Cox RJ51, De Mot R52, Donadio S53, Donia MS54, van der Donk WA55, Dorrestein PC56, Doyle S57, Driessen AJ58, Ehling-Schulz M59, Entian KD11, Fischbach MA7, Gerwick L26, Gerwick WH60, Gross H43, Gust B43, Hertweck C61, Höfte M62, Jensen SE63, Ju J41, Katz L64, Kaysser L43, Klassen JL65, Keller NP66, Kormanec J67, Kuipers OP68, Kuzuyama T69, Kyrpides NC70, Kwon HJ71, Lautru S72, Lavigne R73, Lee CY74, Linquan B75, Liu X19, Liu W35, Luzhetskyy A10, Mahmud T76, Mast Y77, Méndez C78, Metsä-Ketelä M79, Micklefield J80, Mitchell DA81, Moore BS60, Moreira LM82, Müller R10, Neilan BA83, Nett M20, Nielsen J84, O'Gara F85, Oikawa H86, Osbourn A29, Osburne MS87, Ostash B88, Payne SM38, Pernodet JL72, Petricek M89, Piel J18, Ploux O90, Raaijmakers JM5, Salas JA91, Schmitt EK92, Scott B93, Seipke RF94, Shen B95, Sherman DH40, Sivonen K13, Smanski MJ96, Sosio M53, Stegmann E97, Süssmuth RD31, Tahlan K28, Thomas CM17, Tang Y98, Truman AW15, Viaud M99, Walton JD100, Walsh CT101, Weber T4, van Wezel GP102, Wilkinson B15, Willey JM103, Wohlleben W97, Wright GD39, Ziemert N97, Zhang C41, Zotchev SB104, Breitling R2, Takano E2, Glöckner FO105.

Author information

1
Microbial Genomics and Bioinformatics Research Group, Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Bremen, Germany.
2
Manchester Centre for Synthetic Biology of Fine and Speciality Chemicals (SYNBIOCHEM), Manchester Institute of Biotechnology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
3
Laboratory of Genetically Encoded Small Molecules, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York, USA.
4
Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Biosustainability, Technical University of Denmark, Hørsholm, Denmark.
5
Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), Department of Microbial Ecology, Wageningen, the Netherlands.
6
1] Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA. [2] Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA. [3] School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
7
1] Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA. [2] California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.
8
Department of Energy (DOE) Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California, USA.
9
Evolution of Metabolic Diversity Laboratory, Unidad de Genómica Avanzada (Langebio), Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (Cinvestav-IPN), Irapuato, Guanajuato, México.
10
Helmholtz Institute for Pharmaceutical Research, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research and Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.
11
Institute for Molecular Biosciences, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
12
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, California State University, Chico, California, USA.
13
Microbiology and Biotechnology Division, Department of Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
14
Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA.
15
Department of Molecular Microbiology, John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, UK.
16
Department of Pharmaceutical Biology and Biotechnology, Albert-Ludwigs-University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.
17
School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.
18
Institute of Microbiology, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
19
Department of Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.
20
Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology (HKI), Jena, Germany.
21
Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, Palo Alto, California, USA.
22
Sustainable Studies Program, Roosevelt University Chicago, Illinois, USA.
23
Merck Stiftungsprofessur für Molekulare Biotechnologie, Goethe Universität Frankfurt, Fachbereich Biowissenschaften, Frankfurt, Germany.
24
1] Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Biosustainability, Technical University of Denmark, Hørsholm, Denmark. [2] BioInformatics Research Center, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.
25
1] Laboratory of Gene Technology, KU Leuven, Heverlee, Belgium. [2] Laboratory of Food Microbiology, KU Leuven, Heverlee, Belgium.
26
Center for Marine Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA.
27
Department of Biology, William Paterson University, Wayne, New Jersey, USA.
28
Department of Biology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada.
29
Department of Metabolic Biology, John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, UK.
30
Department of Chemistry, The Scripps Research Institute, Jupiter, Florida, USA.
31
Institut für Chemie, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
32
BIOMERIT Research Centre, School of Microbiology, University College Cork-National University of Ireland, Cork, Ireland.
33
Departamento de Bioquímica y Genómica Microbianas, IBCE, Montevideo, Uruguay.
34
1] Energy Biosciences Institute, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA. [2] Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA.
35
State Key Laboratory of Bioorganic and Natural Products Chemistry, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.
36
1] Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology (HKI), Jena, Germany. [2] Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka, Japan.
37
Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
38
1] Department of Molecular Biosciences, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas, USA. [2] Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas, USA.
39
Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, The M.G. DeGroote Institute for Infectious Disease Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
40
1] Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. [2] Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. [3] Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. [4] Department of Microbiology &Immunology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.
41
Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Marine Materia Medica, RNAM Center for Marine Microbiology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China.
42
Dynamique des Génomes et Adaptation Microbienne, Université de Lorraine and Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Unité Mixte de Recherche (UMR) 1128, Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy, France.
43
1] Pharmaceutical Institute, Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany. [2] German Centre for Infection Research (DZIF), Partner Site Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.
44
Infectious Disease Research, Merck Research Laboratories, Kenilworth, New Jersey, USA.
45
Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
46
1] Merck Stiftungsprofessur für Molekulare Biotechnologie, Goethe Universität Frankfurt, Fachbereich Biowissenschaften, Frankfurt, Germany. [2] Buchmann Institute for Molecular Life Sciences (BMLS), Goethe Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany.
47
Fachbereich Phytomedizin, Albrecht Thaer Institut, Humboldt Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
48
UCD School of Biomolecular and Biomedical Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
49
UNT System College of Pharmacy, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, Texas, USA.
50
Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
51
1] Institut für Organische Chemie, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Hannover, Germany. [2] School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
52
Centre of Microbial and Plant Genetics, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, University of Leuven, Heverlee, Belgium.
53
Naicons Srl, Milano, Italy.
54
Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, USA.
55
1] Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, USA. [2] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, USA.
56
1] Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA. [2] Center for Marine Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA. [3] Collaborative Mass Spectrometry Innovation Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA.
57
Department of Biology, Maynooth University, Maynooth, County Kildare, Ireland.
58
Department of Molecular Microbiology, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute and Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.
59
Functional Microbiology, Institute of Microbiology, Department of Pathobiology, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
60
1] Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA. [2] Center for Marine Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA.
61
1] Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology (HKI), Jena, Germany. [2] Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany.
62
Department of Crop Protection, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
63
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
64
Synthetic Biology Engineering Research Center (SynBERC), University of California Emeryville, Emeryville, California, USA.
65
Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut, USA.
66
1] Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. [2] Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
67
Institute of Molecular Biology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovak Republic.
68
Department of Molecular Genetics, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.
69
Biotechnology Research Center, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
70
1] Department of Energy (DOE) Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California, USA. [2] Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
71
Division of Bioscience and Bioinformatics, Myongji University, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-Do, South Korea.
72
Institute of Integrative Biology of the Cell (I2BC), Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Université Paris Sud, Orsay, France.
73
Laboratory of Gene Technology, KU Leuven, Heverlee, Belgium.
74
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA.
75
1] State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China. [2] School of Life Sciences &Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.
76
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA.
77
Microbiology/Biotechnology, Interfaculty Institute of Microbiology and Infection Medicine, Faculty of Science, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.
78
1] Departamento de Biología Funcional, Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain. [2] Instituto Universitario de Oncología del Principado de Asturias (I.U.O.P.A), Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain.
79
Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
80
School of Chemistry, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
81
Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, USA.
82
Institute for Bioengineering and Biosciences, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal.
83
School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
84
1] Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Biosustainability, Technical University of Denmark, Hørsholm, Denmark. [2] Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
85
1] BIOMERIT Research Centre, School of Microbiology, University College Cork-National University of Ireland, Cork, Ireland. [2] Curtin University, School of Biomedical Sciences, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
86
Division of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.
87
Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
88
Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Lviv, Ukraine.
89
Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (ASCR), Prague, Czech Republic.
90
Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire des Energies de Demain (LIED), UMR 8236 CNRS, Université Paris Diderot, Paris, France.
91
Departamento de Biología Funcional, Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain.
92
Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Campus, Basel, Switzerland.
93
Institute of Fundamental Sciences, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
94
Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology, School of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
95
1] Department of Chemistry, The Scripps Research Institute, Jupiter, Florida, USA. [2] Molecular Therapeutics and Natural Products Library Initiative, The Scripps Research Institute, Jupiter, Florida, USA.
96
1] Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Biophysics, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA. [2] BioTechnology Institute, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA.
97
1] German Centre for Infection Research (DZIF), Partner Site Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany. [2] Microbiology/Biotechnology, Interfaculty Institute of Microbiology and Infection Medicine, Faculty of Science, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.
98
1] Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA. [2] Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.
99
Unité BIOlogie et GEstion des Risques en agriculture (BIOGER), Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Grignon, France.
100
Department of Energy Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center and Department of Energy Plant Research Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA.
101
Chemistry, Engineering &Medicine for Human Health (ChEM-H) Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA.
102
Molecular Biotechnology, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, Leiden, the Netherlands.
103
Hofstra North Shore-Long Island Jewish School of Medicine, Hempstead, New York, USA.
104
Department of Biotechnology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
105
1] Microbial Genomics and Bioinformatics Research Group, Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Bremen, Germany. [2] Jacobs University Bremen gGmbH, Bremen, Germany.
PMID:
26284661
PMCID:
PMC5714517
DOI:
10.1038/nchembio.1890
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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