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Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2016 Mar;44(2):95-105. doi: 10.1111/ceo.12633. Epub 2015 Nov 8.

Longitudinal Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study: rationale, study design and research methodology.

Author information

Allen Foster Community Eye Health Research Centre, Gullapalli Pratibha Rao International Centre for Advancement of Rural Eye Care, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Banjara Hills, India.
Brien Holden Eye Research Centre, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Banjara Hills, India.
International Centre for Eye Health, Department of Clinical Research, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
Indian Institute of Public Health, Hyderabad, India.



The rationale, objectives, study design and procedures for the longitudinal Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study are described.


A longitudinal cohort study was carried out.


Participants include surviving cohort from the rural component of Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study.


During 1996-2000, Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Survey was conducted in three rural (n = 7771) and one urban (n = 2522) areas (now called Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 1). In 2009-2010, a feasibility exercise (Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 2) for a longitudinal study (Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3) was undertaken in the rural clusters only, as urban clusters no longer existed. In Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3, a detailed interview will be carried out to collect data on sociodemographic factors, ocular and systemic history, risk factors, visual function, knowledge of eye diseases and barriers to accessing services. All participants will also undergo a comprehensive eye examination including photography of lens, optic disc and retina, Optic Coherence Tomography of the posterior segment, anthropometry, blood pressure and frailty measures.


Measures include estimates of the incidence of visual impairment and age-related eye disease (lens opacities, glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration) and the progression of eye disease (lens opacities and myopia) and associated risk factors.


Of the 7771 respondents examined in rural areas in Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 1, 5447 (70.1%) participants were traced in Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 2. These participants will be re-examined.


Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3 will provide data on the incidence and progression of visual impairment and major eye diseases and their associated risk factors in India. The study will provide further evidence to aid planning eye care services.


Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study; cohort; incidence; progression; risk factors

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