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Eur J Clin Nutr. 1989 Nov;43(11):737-48.

Energy expenditure of young Swazi women as measured by the doubly-labelled water method.

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  • 1Department of Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104-6398.


The energy expenditure of a group of young (age 18-28 years) Swazi women resident at an agricultural college was measured using the doubly-labelled water (DLW) method. This was a baseline study to evaluate feasibility of the protocol under field conditions in Swaziland and to determine energy needs of sedentary women under well controlled conditions. Measurements were based on saliva samples collected over a 10-d period using the two-pair method. Two pairs of data points (days 2-9 and 3-10) were used to calculate expenditure. The two sets of data points were within 2.5 per cent of each other. Dietary intake was measured by self-report diaries for 5 study days and was not significantly different from the DLW measurements. Energy expenditure averaged 1735 kcal (7252 kJ)/d and 44 kcal (185 kJ)/kg fat-free mass, lower than other groups similarly measured. Intake averaged 1738 kcal (7265 kJ)/d. Low levels of expenditure observed probably reflect inactivity.

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