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Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2015 Oct;8(10):922-31. doi: 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-14-0336. Epub 2015 Aug 14.

Modulation of Breast Cancer Risk Biomarkers by High-Dose Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Phase II Pilot Study in Postmenopausal Women.

Author information

1
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas. cfabian@kumc.edu.
2
Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas.
3
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas.
4
Department of Dietetics and Nutrition, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas.
5
Mercy Hospital, Miami, Florida.
6
Department of Systems Biology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.
7
Department of Biostatistics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas.
8
Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Abstract

Associational studies suggest higher intakes/blood levels of the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) relative to the omega-6 arachidonic acid (AA) are associated with reduced breast cancer risk. We performed a pilot study of high-dose EPA + DHA in postmenopausal women to assess feasibility before initiating a phase IIB prevention trial. Postmenopausal women with cytologic evidence of hyperplasia in their baseline random periareolar fine needle aspiration (RPFNA) took 1,860 mg EPA +1500 mg DHA ethyl esters daily for 6 months. Blood and breast tissue were sampled at baseline and study conclusion for exploratory biomarker assessment, with P values uncorrected for multiple comparisons. Feasibility was predefined as 50% uptake, 80% completion, and 70% compliance. Trial uptake by 35 study entrants from 54 eligible women was 65%, with 97% completion and 97% compliance. Favorable modulation was suggested for serum adiponectin (P = 0.0027), TNFα (P = 0.016), HOMA 2B measure of pancreatic β cell function (P = 0.0048), and bioavailable estradiol (P = 0.039). Benign breast tissue Ki-67 (P = 0.036), macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (P = 0.033), cytomorphology index score (P = 0.014), and percent mammographic density (P = 0.036) were decreased with favorable effects in a proteomics array for several proteins associated with mitogen signaling and cell-cycle arrest; but no obvious overall effect on proteins downstream of mTOR. Although favorable risk biomarker modulation will need to be confirmed in a placebo-controlled trial, we have demonstrated feasibility for development of high-dose EPA and DHA ethyl esters for primary prevention of breast cancer.

PMID:
26276744
PMCID:
PMC4596784
DOI:
10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-14-0336
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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